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Flashcards in Exercise Deck (29)
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1

Cognitive exercise, higher levels of education, and certain occupations which require mental acuity are all associated with . . .

Delayed loss of cognition in normal aging and a decreased risk of dementia

2

Physical exercise can have a significant positive impact on _______ health

Brain

3

Any bodily activity that maintains or improves physical fitness, health and wellness

Exercise

4

What are ways you can measure physical fitness, health, and wellness?

Balance
Bone density
Strength
Endurance
Lipid Profiles
Blood Pressure
Cardiovascular Health

5

What is a result of the fact that only about 15% of adults manage the minimum required physical activity per week and 59% of Canadian adults are overweight?

Raising rates of type 2 Diabetes, Heart and Circulatory disease

6

What is a result of the lack of children getting enough exercise?

Earlier onset of chronic diseases of obesity

7

Performance on standardized tests for ______ and _____ are particularly correlated with aerobic fitness

Math
Reading

8

Which brain region are involved in Mathematics?

PFC
IntraParietal Sulcus

9

Which brain region are involved in Reading?

PFC
Posterior Cingulate Cortex

10

Which brain region is activated when you do Aerobic Exercise?

Network connecting frontal lobe and parietal lobe

11

______ performance and _____ ability in youth have been positively correlated with health and fitness

Cognitive
Academic

12

What is the main problem with research related to mental ability and physical fitness?

There are only a few studies that have used true experimental designs - most of our data is from historical reporting

13

What cognitive functions in adult showed the most improvement from exercise?

Executive functioning
Working memory

14

Which area of the adult brain shows decreased activation as a result of aerobic exercise?

Anterior Cingulate Cortex (emotional response)

15

Which area of the adult brain shows increased activation as a result of aerobic exercise?

PFC and Parietal Cortex (executive function and control over limbic system)

16

Exercise increases ____-_____ control by the PFC over emotional centres

Top-Down

17

Exercise naturally releases ______ which is associated with improved mood

Endorphins

18

Exercise has been reported to have positive effects on _____ symptoms: its effects are equal to ______ therapy.

Depressive
Cognitive

19

Overly high levels of exercise and overtraining are associated with chronic activation of the ______ axis: This can contribute to higher rates of mood and _____ disorders in Athletes

HPA
Anxiety

20

Athletes often exist in a state of ______ which is associated with neurobiological changes including metabolic disruption affecting levels of _________

Fatigue
Neurotransmitters

21

What are three ways exercise is good for the brain?

Cardiovascular
Enhanced Neurotransmission
Enhanced Neuroplasticity

22

What benefit of exercise increases metabolism, oxygenation, and blood flow in the brain?

Cardiovascular Benefits

23

What benefit of exercise increases neurotransmitter production in the brain (serotonin, dopamine, GABA, glutamate, and norepinephrine)

Improved Neurotransmission

24

What benefit of exercise increases hippocampal volume, neurogenesis, and dendritic density?

Enhanced Neuroplasticity

25

What are two growth factors positively effected by exercise?

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - Vascular growth

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) - Neurogenesis and axonal growth

26

What is neurogenesis?

Production of new neurons

27

What are the functions of new cells in the hippocampal formation?

Improved learning and memory
Reduced anxiety and depression
Increased resistance to stress (resilience)

28

Define: BDNF

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor:
Acts on the CNS and PNS to decrease neural death and promote neurogenesis and growth of axons

29

Define: Working Memory

Part of short-term memory
Holds items/numbers in mind and manipulates them (e.g. doing math or interpreting speech)