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Flashcards in Eating Disorders Deck (26)
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1

What disorder involves dramatic, dangerous levels of weight loss, an intense fear of weight gain or obesity, and relentless pursuit of thinness?

Anorexia Nervosa

2

What are the DSM-5 requirements for diagnosing AN?

Persistent restriction of energy intake leading to significantly low body weight
Either an intense fear of gaining weight or persistent behaviors that interfere with weight gain
Persistent lack of recognition of the seriousness of current low body weight

3

What is the prevalence of AN?

Rare - 0.5% of population

10:1 Female to Male ratio

4

What is Asceticism?

Abstinence from sensual pleasures - severe self-discipline and avoidance of all forms of indulgence

Exhibited by individuals with AN

5

What is Lanugo?

Growth of downy hair on the limbs and cheeks - a consequence of starvation

6

What is Amenorrhea and what hormone does it involve?

Cessation of the menstrual cycle - a consequence of starvation
Leptin signalling - used as a measure of how ready a woman is to be pregnant

7

What hormone signals fullness to the body and is low in AN patients?

Leptin

8

What hormone is associated with hunger and is high in AN patients?

Ghrelin
AN patients appear to be Ghrelin-Resistent

9

Findings suggest that what control circuits are over-activated in AN patients which explains their extreme self-control in limiting food intake?

Dorsal Lateral Prefrontal Cortex - DLPFC

10

Which lobe shows increased activity in healthy patients viewing self-pictures but very little activity in AN patients viewing self-pictures?

Parietal Lobe

11

Dampened activity of the Insula is involved in what features of Anorexia Nervosa?

Interoception - reduced ability to sense/perceive physiological conditions of the body (Hunger, pain, heart rate)

Taste - reduced ability to enjoy palatable food

12

AN patients may produce less ____ than healthy people

Dopamine

13

AN patients show lower levels of activity in the__________ when winning a game, compared to healthy individuals who showed increased activity

Ventral Striatum - where Nucleus Accumbens is located

14

It has been suggested that early-life exposures to ______ is protective against eating disorders

Testosterone

15

What is the first and most important goal in treating AN?

Weight Gain

16

What is the rate of recovery of AN patients?

Only 30% fully recover
Roughly 10% die of starvation or suicide - highest mortality rate of any mental illness

17

What is neurofeedback?

Individuals are attached to a device that measures activity of certain targeted regions of the brain and levels are fed back in real-time allowing patients to regulate their brain activity using real-time feedback

18

What is Bulimia Nervosa

Eating large amounts of food (binging) and compensating for excess food intake through purging or exercise

19

What is Purging Bulimia?

Individuals attempt to rid their digestive systems of excess food by either vomiting, or through laxatives and diuretics

20

What is Non-Purging Bulimia?

Individuals attempt to compensate for excess food by exercising or fasting

21

DSM-5 Requirements for diagnosing Bulimia Nervosa

Recurrent episodes of Binge Eating
Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain - vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, drugs, fasting, excessive exercise
Both occur on average at least once a week for three months
Self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight

22

DSM-5 characteristics of Binge-Eating Disorder

Eating more rapidly than normal
Eating until uncomfortably full
Eating large amount of food when not physically hungry
Eating alone because of feeling embarrassed about how much one is eating
Feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed, or very guilty afterwards

23

The _____ component of hunger/eating concerns eating food to maintain physical health and _______

Homeostatic
Homeostasis

24

The _____ component of eating/hunger is concerned with eating for enjoyment, taste, pleasure

Hedonic

25

Which mechanisms ensure that we actively seek food, take risks to obtain it, and favor food that is high in carbs, fats, and salt?

Hedonic Mechanisms

26

What brain region is involved in hedonic feeding?

The circuitry involved in addiction - eating pleasurable foods activates our reward centers