Flashcards in Eating Disorders Deck (26)
What disorder involves dramatic, dangerous levels of weight loss, an intense fear of weight gain or obesity, and relentless pursuit of thinness?
What are the DSM-5 requirements for diagnosing AN?
Persistent restriction of energy intake leading to significantly low body weight
Either an intense fear of gaining weight or persistent behaviors that interfere with weight gain
Persistent lack of recognition of the seriousness of current low body weight
What is the prevalence of AN?
Rare - 0.5% of population
10:1 Female to Male ratio
What is Asceticism?
Abstinence from sensual pleasures - severe self-discipline and avoidance of all forms of indulgence
Exhibited by individuals with AN
What is Lanugo?
Growth of downy hair on the limbs and cheeks - a consequence of starvation
What is Amenorrhea and what hormone does it involve?
Cessation of the menstrual cycle - a consequence of starvation
Leptin signalling - used as a measure of how ready a woman is to be pregnant
What hormone signals fullness to the body and is low in AN patients?
What hormone is associated with hunger and is high in AN patients?
AN patients appear to be Ghrelin-Resistent
Findings suggest that what control circuits are over-activated in AN patients which explains their extreme self-control in limiting food intake?
Dorsal Lateral Prefrontal Cortex - DLPFC
Which lobe shows increased activity in healthy patients viewing self-pictures but very little activity in AN patients viewing self-pictures?
Dampened activity of the Insula is involved in what features of Anorexia Nervosa?
Interoception - reduced ability to sense/perceive physiological conditions of the body (Hunger, pain, heart rate)
Taste - reduced ability to enjoy palatable food
AN patients may produce less ____ than healthy people
AN patients show lower levels of activity in the__________ when winning a game, compared to healthy individuals who showed increased activity
Ventral Striatum - where Nucleus Accumbens is located
It has been suggested that early-life exposures to ______ is protective against eating disorders
What is the first and most important goal in treating AN?
What is the rate of recovery of AN patients?
Only 30% fully recover
Roughly 10% die of starvation or suicide - highest mortality rate of any mental illness
What is neurofeedback?
Individuals are attached to a device that measures activity of certain targeted regions of the brain and levels are fed back in real-time allowing patients to regulate their brain activity using real-time feedback
What is Bulimia Nervosa
Eating large amounts of food (binging) and compensating for excess food intake through purging or exercise
What is Purging Bulimia?
Individuals attempt to rid their digestive systems of excess food by either vomiting, or through laxatives and diuretics
What is Non-Purging Bulimia?
Individuals attempt to compensate for excess food by exercising or fasting
DSM-5 Requirements for diagnosing Bulimia Nervosa
Recurrent episodes of Binge Eating
Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain - vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, drugs, fasting, excessive exercise
Both occur on average at least once a week for three months
Self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight
DSM-5 characteristics of Binge-Eating Disorder
Eating more rapidly than normal
Eating until uncomfortably full
Eating large amount of food when not physically hungry
Eating alone because of feeling embarrassed about how much one is eating
Feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed, or very guilty afterwards
The _____ component of hunger/eating concerns eating food to maintain physical health and _______
The _____ component of eating/hunger is concerned with eating for enjoyment, taste, pleasure
Which mechanisms ensure that we actively seek food, take risks to obtain it, and favor food that is high in carbs, fats, and salt?