Flashcards in Schizophrenia Deck (38)
A psychological disorder in which patients experience a loss of contact with reality
What is Schizophrenia ?
A classified psychotic disorder which produces disturbances in perception of reality, interpersonal relations, social integration, cognition, and mood
What is the prevalence of Schizophrenia?
Affects 1 in 100 people
Schizophrenia is highly comorbid with ________, anxiety _______, and/or ________
Why did Eugen Bleuler coin the term schizophrenia - which means Split Mind?
Different components of the individuals mind become disconnected from each other and reality in general
Behavioral excess or symptoms not experienced by non-affected individuals
Behavioral deficits or impairments
Erratic changes in speech, motor behavior, and emotions
Strongly held beliefs despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary
What are Bizarre Delusions?
Clearly implausible and not understandable
What are Non-Bizarre Delusions?
Delusions that are false but at least possible
What are Persecutory Delusions?
A belief that the individual is being unfairly targeted, followed, harassed, cheated, drugged, conspired against, spied on, attacked, or otherwise obstructed in the pursuit of their goals
Perceptions in the absence of an actual sensory stimulus
What is the most common hallucination is schizophrenia?
What are some of the Negative symptoms of schizophrenia? (The A's)
Apathy or Avolition - lack of interest/motivation
Autism - tendency to keep to oneself, no interest in people/surroundings (not the disorder)
Anhedonia - Inability to enjoy or indifference toward pleasurable activity
Affect Flattening - reduction in range/intensity of emotional expression
What are some of the Disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia?
Cognitive Difficulties - planning/learning/focusing
Disorganized Speech - impair effective communication
Inappropriate Affect - emotions not appropriate for current situation
Motoric Changes - unpredictable movement, agitation, and catatonic immobility
What are some catatonic behaviors exhibited by schizophrenics patients?
Decrease in reaction to surrounding environment
General motionless and apparent unawareness
Rigid or bizarre postures
DSM-5 Requirements for diagnosing schizophrenia?
Must demonstrate at least 2 of the symptoms for a minimum of 6 months (including 1 month consecutively)
Must show at least one of the first three symptoms
Must rule out - mood disorder, substance use, other medical conditions
What are the five DSM-5 symptoms that characterize Schizophrenia?
Disorganized or Catatonic Behavior
The first appearance of psychotic symptoms in a patient, usually when diagnosing occurs, is known as?
A Psychotic Break
The amount of _______ shared with an affected family member is directly related to one's risk of developing schizophrenia
People born in ____________ months have a 5-8% increased risk of developing schizophrenia
There is strong correlational evidence linking prenatal infection and the development of schizophrenia in offspring, what are some of the types of infection involved?
Taxoplasma Gondii Antibodies
Stress is a significant contributing factor to schizophrenia in regards to:
Overall risk of developing schizophrenia
As a precipitating factor in those who are susceptible
What are the most consistent neuroanatomical findings in schizophrenia?
Reduction in brain weight
Enlargement of the ventricles
What are some of the symptoms of reduced brain weight in schizophrenic patients?
Frontal and temporal lobe volume - cognitive and language deficits
Basal ganglia volume - reduced emotional control and motoric changes
Hippocampal volume - learning and memory deficits
There appears to be abnormal cellular organization in the schizophrenic brain, what does this suggest?
A developmental origin for the disease
The symptomatic disorganization reported may actually reflect literal cellular disorganization within the brain
What does the Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia propose?
That symptoms of schizophrenia are due to excess activity of dopamine
_________ of the mesolimbic connections (VTA -> NAc and VTA -> Hippo) results in overstimulation of the D2 receptors which results in ________ symptoms