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Flashcards in OCD Deck (24)
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1

What is OCD?

A psychiatric disorder consisting of obsessions which lead to heightened anxiety and distress resulting in compulsions in an attempt to relive the negative feelings

2

What is an Obsession?

Recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges,, or images that are experienced as intrusive or unwanted

3

What is a Compulsion?

Repetitive behaviour or mental acts aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress
Unrealistic or Excessive

4

What percentage of the populations affected by OCD?

2%

5

OCD is among the top 10 leading causes of illness related ________ worldwide

Disability

6

What are the DSM-5 Criteria for OCD?

1. Obsessions
2. Compulsions

Time-consuming
Cause significant psychological distress

7

What does the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) rate clinical severity in OCD on?

1. Time
2. Degree of interference
3. Subjective distress
4. Resistance
5. Degree of control

8

What are the four discrete dimensions of OCD?

Symmetry
Taboo Thoughts
Contamination
Hoarding

9

What is the CSTC circuit?

Cortico-Striato-Thalamo-Cortical Circuit

10

What does the CSTC circuit connect?

Cortex > Striatum > Thalamus

11

In normal individuals when the CSTC circuit is activated ________ signals from the PFC excite the Striatum which then leads to reduced ________ of the Thalamus (via GABA) and subsequent _________ of the PFC

Glutamatergic
Inhibition
Excitation

12

In OCD patients the thalamus is ______ leading to ________ of areas of the PFC and striatum

Hyperactive
Hyperactivation

13

What are the principal (suggested) neurotransmitter systems which play a part in OCD?

Serotonin
Dopamine
Glutamate

14

There is a greater ________ component in childhood onset forms of OCD where as __________ factors are more important for later-onset forms of OCD

Inherited
Environmental

15

What is the most common and effective form of treatment and how does it work to relieve symptoms of OCD?

CBT
Helps OCD individuals understand the inaccuracy of their obsessions and learn to different ways of dealing with them instead of compulsions

16

What are four possible Environmental factors that can lead to OCD?

Perinatal events
Stress
Trauma
Neuroinflammation

17

Following successful CBT, OCD patients show reduced metabolic activity in the ________ and parts of the Basal Ganglia and increased connectivity among the ________, ________ and PFC

PFC

Cerebellum
Striatum

18

Which drug is most commonly used to treat OCD and why?

SSRI
Deficiency in serotonin is though to underlie OCD

19

Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders (OCDR) are characterized by...

Repetitive thoughts
Distressing emotions
Compulsive behaviours

20

What are some examples of OCDRs?

OCD
Boddy Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)
Hoarding Disorder
Trichotillomania (excessive hair pulling)
Excoriation Disorder (excessive skin picking)

21

BDD is a body-image disorder characterized by ______ and _______ preoccupations with imagined or slight defect in one's ____________

Persistent
Intrusive
Appearance

22

What do many individuals with BDD do rather than seek help from mental professionals?

Look into Cosmetic Surgery to fix their perceived flaws

23

What areas do individuals with BDD display increased activity in?

OFC
Caudata

24

What area do individuals with BDD display decreased activity in ?

Visual Cortex