Chapter 9 Molecular Biology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Molecular Biology Deck (38)
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1

What can be observed most readily during the gross examination of an animal?

its phenotype

2

Where is the eukaryotic cell's genetic-information stored?

In the chromosomes.

3

What is the term for the genetic make-up of an organism?

Genotype

4

There are many genes in a chromosome.

True

5

What is the sugar that is found in the DNA backbone?

Deoxyribose

6

Nucleotide is compose of:

-a sugar
-nitrogen-containing base
-Phosphate group

7

The haploid daughter cells produced in meiosis are identical.

False

8

In what process are germ cells produced?

Meiosis

9

How do the number of chromosomes in the ovum and sperm compare to that found in the parent cell?

The parent cell contains twice as many as the ovum and sperm

10

The diploid daughter cells produced in mitosis are identical.

True

11

Where does replication take place?

in the nucleus

12

A zygote is a diploid cell.

True

13

In mitosis, what do the chromosomes do after replication in order to split into daughter cells?

Pair up

14

What does the word "mitosis" mean?

Threads

15

Meiosis produces four different haploid daughter cells.

True

16

A zygote's chromosomes are inherited from either the mother or the father.

False

17

What is the product of replication?

DNA

18

What process must some proteins synthesized in a cell undergo before they can fulfilled their role in the cell?

Post-transnational modification

19

mRNA:

it carries the cell's genetic information form the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

20

What is the product of translation?

Protein

21

Transfer RNA is involved in which step of protein synthesis?

Translation

22

What process enables a cell to read genetic code in the nucleus to make protein in the cytoplasm?

Transcription

23

Where does the
transcription take place?

In the nucleus

24

What cellular organelle is the site of protein synthesis?

Ribosome

25

The process of constructing the desired genetic code in a laboratory and inserting it into a zygote or embryo during development is called:

Genetic engineering

26

What is added to a DNA sample to cut the DNA into smaller pieces?

Enzymes

27

Electrophoresis is a technique used to BLANK the DNA fragments.

separate

28

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to:

clone the DNA fragments

29

What does "cloning DNA" mean?

Making exact copies of DNA segments.

30

What procedures determines the level of mRNA transcripts in a sample?

Quantitative RT-PCR