Chapter 18 Experimental Design and Data Handling Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Experimental Design and Data Handling Deck (40)
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1

Blind assessment is an effective method of avoiding bias.

True

2

When a sample group shows no effect, although the treatment would actually have a real effect on the whole population, the study has produced false positive results.

False

3

Scientific research begins with a conclusion about a set of animals or humans.

False

4

A group of test subjects in a research study is used as a sample to draw conclusions about an entire population.

True

5

If results from a study can be replicated in some animal studies but not in others, the study lacks:

generality

6

An experimental hypothesis is a BLANK of the results of the study.

prediction

7

An experimental hypothesis is a statement of the answer an investigator expects to find to a research question.

True

8

In a study that attempts to determine if using treats to elicit a desired behavior (move through a tunnel to a new cage) helps the rat learn the behavior more quickly, what is the dependent variable?

Time taken to reach new cage

9

Confounding variables are known as:

non-experimental variables

10

All members of the research team have a responsibility to see that the study protocol is followed exactly as written and approved by the IACUC.

True

11

Unexpected differences within the subjects can be controlled by:

randomization

12

The independent variable is the variable that is measured during the study.

False: it is the variable that is manipulated by the investigator.

13

The BLANK is the number of experimental units in a group.

sample size.

14

In a study that attemps to determine if using treats such as pieces of carrots to elicit a desired behavior in rats (move through a tunnel to a new cage) will help the rats learn the behavior more quickly, what is the independent variable?

The treats

15

In a scientific study, the control group is the group receiving the experimental treatment.

False

16

Some sources of nonexperimental variation cannot be controlled.

True

17

In any scientific study, the goal is to include as many animals as possible in each group.

False

18

Two studies demonstrated that Drug A reduces joint inflammation in baboons. Study 1 shows a significant difference between the experimental and the control group at p = 0.10, and Study 2 shows a significant difference at p = 0.01. Which study has the greater confidence level?

Study 2

19

What term is used for the measure of dispersion of data?

Standard deviation

20

In a normal distribution, 95% of the measurements fall between the mean plus or minus one standard deviation (mean +/- SD)

False: 68%, then 95% and then 99%

21

In statistics, the p-value is the opposite of the confidence level.

True

22

Information based on reported examples is known as:

anecdotal

23

If an article states that the results show a significant difference at the 0.05 level, what does this mean?

There is a 95% probability that the difference is real.

24

A graph with a curve encompassing a wider span across the x-axis indicates greater:

variability

25

The Research question is usually expressed as a(n):

Hypothesis

26

A study attempts to determine if using treats, such as chocolate chips, elicits a desired behavior in rats of moving through a tunnel to a new cage and helps the rats learn the behavior quicker. What is the independent variable?

The treats

27

Statistics is a science that deals with the BLANK, BLANK, BLANK, and BLANK of data by the use of BLANK.

collection, classification, analysis, interpretation, probability theory

28

What criteria should be used in determining the number of animals to be used in a study?

The 3Rs principle, The confidence level selected

29

Dependent variable

The variable that is measured during the study

30

Independent variable

The variable that is being manipulated by the investigator.