Flashcards in Chapter 18 Experimental Design and Data Handling Deck (40)

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1

## Blind assessment is an effective method of avoiding bias.

### True

2

## When a sample group shows no effect, although the treatment would actually have a real effect on the whole population, the study has produced false positive results.

### False

3

## Scientific research begins with a conclusion about a set of animals or humans.

### False

4

## A group of test subjects in a research study is used as a sample to draw conclusions about an entire population.

### True

5

## If results from a study can be replicated in some animal studies but not in others, the study lacks:

### generality

6

## An experimental hypothesis is a BLANK of the results of the study.

### prediction

7

## An experimental hypothesis is a statement of the answer an investigator expects to find to a research question.

### True

8

## In a study that attempts to determine if using treats to elicit a desired behavior (move through a tunnel to a new cage) helps the rat learn the behavior more quickly, what is the dependent variable?

### Time taken to reach new cage

9

## Confounding variables are known as:

### non-experimental variables

10

## All members of the research team have a responsibility to see that the study protocol is followed exactly as written and approved by the IACUC.

### True

11

## Unexpected differences within the subjects can be controlled by:

### randomization

12

## The independent variable is the variable that is measured during the study.

### False: it is the variable that is manipulated by the investigator.

13

## The BLANK is the number of experimental units in a group.

### sample size.

14

## In a study that attemps to determine if using treats such as pieces of carrots to elicit a desired behavior in rats (move through a tunnel to a new cage) will help the rats learn the behavior more quickly, what is the independent variable?

### The treats

15

## In a scientific study, the control group is the group receiving the experimental treatment.

### False

16

## Some sources of nonexperimental variation cannot be controlled.

### True

17

## In any scientific study, the goal is to include as many animals as possible in each group.

### False

18

## Two studies demonstrated that Drug A reduces joint inflammation in baboons. Study 1 shows a significant difference between the experimental and the control group at p = 0.10, and Study 2 shows a significant difference at p = 0.01. Which study has the greater confidence level?

### Study 2

19

## What term is used for the measure of dispersion of data?

### Standard deviation

20

## In a normal distribution, 95% of the measurements fall between the mean plus or minus one standard deviation (mean +/- SD)

### False: 68%, then 95% and then 99%

21

## In statistics, the p-value is the opposite of the confidence level.

### True

22

## Information based on reported examples is known as:

### anecdotal

23

## If an article states that the results show a significant difference at the 0.05 level, what does this mean?

### There is a 95% probability that the difference is real.

24

## A graph with a curve encompassing a wider span across the x-axis indicates greater:

### variability

25

## The Research question is usually expressed as a(n):

### Hypothesis

26

## A study attempts to determine if using treats, such as chocolate chips, elicits a desired behavior in rats of moving through a tunnel to a new cage and helps the rats learn the behavior quicker. What is the independent variable?

### The treats

27

## Statistics is a science that deals with the BLANK, BLANK, BLANK, and BLANK of data by the use of BLANK.

### collection, classification, analysis, interpretation, probability theory

28

## What criteria should be used in determining the number of animals to be used in a study?

### The 3Rs principle, The confidence level selected

29

## Dependent variable

###
The variable that is measured during the study

30