Chapter 22 Multi-Level Analysis (625-635) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22 Multi-Level Analysis (625-635) Deck (32)
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1

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) (3)

1. Statistical technique that
2. Compares variances within and between samples
3. In order to estimate the significance of differences between a set of means

2

Capitalising on Chance (4)

1. Making too many tests
2. With alpha set at .05
3. On the same data,
4. Hence increasing the likelihood of a Type I error

3

Within Groups Sum of Squares (4)

1. Sum of squares
2. of deviations of scores
3. around their sample means.
4. Also: error SS.

4

Within Groups Variance (3)

1. Total variance of scores
2. around sample means.
3. Also. error variance.

5

Between Groups Variance (2)

1. Variance of sample means
2. around grand mean.

6

Grand Mean (2)

1. Mean of all scores in a data set,
2. irrespective of conditions or groups

7

Total Variance (2)

1. Variance of all scores in a set
2. around their grand mean

8

Error Variance (3)

1. Total variance of all scores
2. from their group means.
3. Also: within groups variance.

9

F test/ratio (1)

1. Statistic giving ratio of between groups to within groups variance

10

Sum of Squares (1)

1. Addition of the squares of deviations around a mean

11

Variance Ratio Test (1)

1. Full name for the test producing the F statistic

12

Mean Sum of Squares (1)

1. Sum of squares divided by df

13

Between Group Sum of Squares (1)

1. Sum of squares of deviations of sample means from the grand mean

14

Error Sum of Squares (2)

1. Sum of squares of deviations of each score from its own group mean.
2. Also: within group SS.

15

Pairwise Comparison (2)

1. Comparison of just two means
2. From a set of means

16

Post Hoc Comparisons/Tests (2)

1. Tests between means, or groups of means
2. Conducted after inspection of data from initial analysis

17

A Priori Comparisons/Planned Comparisons (2)

1. Tests of differences between selected means, or sets of means,
2. Which, from prior theory, were predicted to differ

18

Family-Wise Error Rate (3)

1. The probability of making at least one Type I error
2. In all the tests made on a set of data,
3. Assuming H0 is true

19

Error Rate per Comparison (3)

1. Given the significance level set,
2. The likelihood of a Type I error in each test made on the data
3. If H0 is true

20

Bonferroni t Tests (3)

1. Procedure for testing means pairwise,
2. Which involves raising the critical values of t
3. To lower the family-wise error rate

21

Linear Contrasts (2)

1. Procedure for testing between individual pairs of means or combinations of means,
2. a priori (i.e. predicted)

22

Linear Coefficients (2)

1. Values to be entered into an equation
2. For calculating linear contrasts

23

Newman-Keuls Post Hoc Test (2)

1. Post hoc test of means pairwise
2. Safe so long as number of means is relatively low

24

Tukey's (HSD) Post Hoc Test (3)

1. Post hoc test of all possible pairwise combinations
2. Appropriate analysis choice with a large number of means
3. Considered conservative.

25

Tukey's (WSD) Post Hoc Test (1)

1. Less conservative post hoc test than Tukey (HSD)

26

Phi (1)

1. Phi statistic for estimating power in ANOVA analyses

27

Kruskal-Wallis Test (4)

1. Non-parametric
2. Between-groups
3. Test of difference between several groups
4. (Mann-Whitney is the two-condition equivalent)

28

Jonckheere Trend Test (3)

1. Non-parametric
2. Statistical test for the significance of a trend
3. In the dependent variable across unrelated conditions

29

MANOVA (2)

1. Statistical procedure using ANOVA
2. On more than one dependent variable

30

Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA) (3)

1. Statistical procedure that performs an ANOVA
2. While partialling out the effect of a variable
3. That is correlated with the dependent variable (the 'co-variate')