Chapter 13 Statistics - Organising the Data Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Statistics - Organising the Data Deck (38)
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1

Raw data/scores

Untreated, uncovered values obtained directly from measuring process used in a study

2

Categorical Variable

Variable where cases are merely placed into independent, separate categories

3

Measured Variable

Variable where cases measured on it are placed on some sort of scale that has direction

4

Levels of Measurement

Levels at which data are categorised or measured

5

Nominal

Level of measurement at which numbers are only labels for categories

6

Ordinal

Level of measurement at which cases are arranged in rank positions

7

Interval

Level of measurement at which each unit on a scale represents an equal change in the variable measured

8

Coding

Giving 'dummy' numbers to discrete levels of an independent variable

9

Frequency data/frequencies

Numbers of cases in specific categories

10

Quasi-Interval Scale

Scale that appears to be interval by where equal intervals do not necessarily measure equal amounts of the construct

11

Ratio Scale

Interval-type scale where proportions on the scale are meaningful; usually an absolute zero exists

12

Median Split Method

Dividing a set of measured values into two groups by dividing them into high and low at their median

13

Continuous Scale/Variable

Scale where there are no discrete steps; theoretically, all points along the scale are meaningful

14

Discrete Scale/Variable

Scale on which not all subdivisions are meaningful; often one where the underlying construct to be measured can only come in whole units (e.g. number of children)

15

Data Set

Group of data points or values which can be summarised or analysed

16

Central Tendency

Formal term for any measure of the typical or middle value in a group

17

Dispersion

Technical and general term for any measure of the spread of values in a sample of data or population

18

Mean (arithmetic)

Average of values found by adding them all and dividing by the number of values in the set

19

Outliers

'Rogue' values at an extreme distance from the centre of the data set. Can be removed from analysis of data set because they unnecessarily distort statistics but this procedure must be openly reported.

20

Trimmed Mean

The mean of a data set with its most extreme 5% of values removed

21

Median

Measure of central tendency; middle value of data set

22

Median position/location

Position where median is to be found in an ordered data set

23

Class Intervals

Categories into which a continuous data scale can be divided in order to summarise frequencies

24

Mode/Modal Value

Measure of central tendency - most frequent value in a data set

25

Bi-modal Distribution

Data set with two modes

26

Range

Measure of dispersion - top to bottom value (plus one)

27

Interquartile Range

Distance between first and third quartile in a distribution

28

Semi-Interquartile Range

Half the distance between first and third quartile in a distribution

29

Deviation Score/Value

Amount by which a particular score differs from the mean of its set

30

Mean Deviation

Measure of dispersion - mean of all absolute deviations