Flashcards in Chapter 13 Statistics - Organising the Data Deck (38)

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## Raw data/scores

### Untreated, uncovered values obtained directly from measuring process used in a study

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## Categorical Variable

### Variable where cases are merely placed into independent, separate categories

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## Measured Variable

### Variable where cases measured on it are placed on some sort of scale that has direction

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## Levels of Measurement

### Levels at which data are categorised or measured

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## Nominal

### Level of measurement at which numbers are only labels for categories

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## Ordinal

### Level of measurement at which cases are arranged in rank positions

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## Interval

### Level of measurement at which each unit on a scale represents an equal change in the variable measured

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## Coding

### Giving 'dummy' numbers to discrete levels of an independent variable

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## Frequency data/frequencies

### Numbers of cases in specific categories

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## Quasi-Interval Scale

### Scale that appears to be interval by where equal intervals do not necessarily measure equal amounts of the construct

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## Ratio Scale

### Interval-type scale where proportions on the scale are meaningful; usually an absolute zero exists

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## Median Split Method

### Dividing a set of measured values into two groups by dividing them into high and low at their median

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## Continuous Scale/Variable

### Scale where there are no discrete steps; theoretically, all points along the scale are meaningful

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## Discrete Scale/Variable

### Scale on which not all subdivisions are meaningful; often one where the underlying construct to be measured can only come in whole units (e.g. number of children)

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## Data Set

### Group of data points or values which can be summarised or analysed

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## Central Tendency

### Formal term for any measure of the typical or middle value in a group

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## Dispersion

### Technical and general term for any measure of the spread of values in a sample of data or population

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## Mean (arithmetic)

### Average of values found by adding them all and dividing by the number of values in the set

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## Outliers

### 'Rogue' values at an extreme distance from the centre of the data set. Can be removed from analysis of data set because they unnecessarily distort statistics but this procedure must be openly reported.

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## Trimmed Mean

### The mean of a data set with its most extreme 5% of values removed

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## Median

### Measure of central tendency; middle value of data set

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## Median position/location

### Position where median is to be found in an ordered data set

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## Class Intervals

### Categories into which a continuous data scale can be divided in order to summarise frequencies

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## Mode/Modal Value

### Measure of central tendency - most frequent value in a data set

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## Bi-modal Distribution

### Data set with two modes

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## Range

### Measure of dispersion - top to bottom value (plus one)

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## Interquartile Range

### Distance between first and third quartile in a distribution

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## Semi-Interquartile Range

### Half the distance between first and third quartile in a distribution

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## Deviation Score/Value

### Amount by which a particular score differs from the mean of its set

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