Chapter 1 Psychology, Science And Research Flashcards Preview

Research Methods And Statistics In Psychology > Chapter 1 Psychology, Science And Research > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Psychology, Science And Research Deck (27)
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1

Findings

Outcomes of a study (eg means, results of statistical tests) before any interpretation is made of them in terms of background theory or expectation

2

Conclusions

A summary of what findings might mean in terms of overall theory and/or proposed relationships between variables

3

Hypothesis Testing

Research that analyses data for a predicted effect

4

Scientific method

General method of investigation using induction and deduction

5

Empirical method

Scientific method of gathering information and summarising it in the hope of identifying general patterns

6

Hypothetico-deductive method

Method of recording observations, developing explanatory theories and testing predictions from those theories

7

Data

Relatively uninterpreted information; gathered facts

8

Induction

Process of moving from particular instances to a generalised pattern

9

Theory

Researcher’s beliefs about how the world works, about how or why a particular phenomenon occurs

10

Hypothesis

Precise statement of assumed relationship between variables

11

Research question

The question a researcher is trying to answer in an investigation

12

Research prediction

Prediction in precise terms about how variables should be related in the analysis of data if a hypothesis is to be supported

13

Deduction

Logical argument using rules to derive a conclusion from premises

14

Effect

A difference or correlation between samples leading to an assumed relationship between variables in the population

15

Replication

Repeating a completed study

16

Raw data

Unprocessed data as gathered in a study eg individual scores

17

Peer review

Critical review by academics, who are experts in the field, of an article submitted for publication

18

Falsifiability

Principle that theories must be defined in a way that makes it possible to show how they could be wrong

19

Pilot study/trials; piloting

Preliminary study or trials often carried out to predict snags and assess features of a main study to follow

20

Variable

Quantity that can change; usually used to refer to a measure of a phenomenon

21

Population

Whole group or category of people from among whom samples are selected

22

Field experiment/study

Research study where data are gathered from participants outside the research centre

23

Participant

Person who takes part in a psychological investigation as a member of a sample or individual case

24

Design

Structure and strategy of a piece of research

25

Analysis

Investigation of data for patterns or evidence of an effect

26

Quantitative data

Data in numerical form, the results of measurement or counting

27

Qualitative data

Data left in their original forms of meaning (eg speech, text) and not quantified