Chapter 4 Validity in Psychological Research Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Validity in Psychological Research Deck (26)
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1

Error Variance

Variance among scores caused by the operation of randomly acting variables

2

Random Error

Any error possible in measuring a variable, excluding error that is systematic

3

Validity

The extent to which an effect demonstrated in research is genuine, not produced by spurious variables and not limited to a specific context

4

Threat to Validity

Any aspect of the design or method of a study the that weakens the likelihood that a real effect has been demonstrated or that might obscure the existence of a real effect

5

Internal Validity

Extent to which an effect found in a study can be taken to be genuinely caused by manipulation of the independent variable

6

Construct Validity

Extent to which conceptions and operational measures of variables encompass the intended theoretical constructs. The constructs can be of persons (samples), treatments (IVs), observations (DV measures) and settings.

7

Participant Expectancy

Effect of participants' expectancy about what they think is supposed to happen in a study

8

Hawthorne Effect

Effect on human performance caused solely by the knowledge that one is being observe

9

Demand Characteristics

Cues in a study which help the participant to work out what is expected

10

Pleasing the Experimenter

Tendency of participants to act in accordance with they they think the experimenter would like to happen

11

Enlightenment

Tendency for people to be familiar with psychological research findings

12

Social Desirability

Tendency of research participants to want to 'look good' and provide socially acceptable answers

13

Evaluation Apprehension

Participants' concern about being tested, which may affect results

14

Reactive Study/Design

Study in which participants react is some way to the experience of being studied/tested

15

Standardised Procedure

Tightly controlled steps taken by experimenter with each participant and used to avoid experimenter bias or expectancy effects

16

Single Blind

Procedure in an experiment where either participants or data assessors do not know which treatment each participant received

17

Double Blind

Experimental procedure where neither participants not data gatherers/assessors know which treatment participants have received

18

External Validity

Extent to which results of research can be generalised across people, places and times

19

Population Validity

Extent to which research effect can be generalised across people

20

Ecological Validity

Widely overused term which can generally be replaces with 'representative design'. Also used to refer to the extent to which a research effect generalises across situations. The original meaning comes from cognitive psychology and refers to the degree to which a proximal stimulus predicts the distal stimulus for the observer. Should not be automatically applied to the laboratory/field distinction.

21

Representative Design

Extent to which conditions of an experiment represent those outside the laboratory to which the experimental effect is to be generalised

22

Reproducibility Project

Large study designed to assess the extent to which the findings of 100 psychological studies could be repeated in replications. Surprisingly low reproducibility was found.

23

Meta-analysis

Statistical analysis of results of multiple equivalent studies of the same, or very similar, effects in order to assess validity more thoroughly

24

Secondary Data

Results gathered from other studies

25

Primary Data

Results collected by researchers directly in their studies

26

Experimenter Expectancy

Tendency for experimenter's knowledge of what is being tested to influence the outcome of research