Flashcards in Chapter 2 Measuring People Deck (32)

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## Equal Probability Selection Method (EPSEM)

### Procedure for producing a sample into which every case in the target population has an equal probability of being selected

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## Hypothetical Construct

### Phenomenon or construct assumed to exist and used to explain observed effects, but as yet unconfirmed; stays an explanation of effects while evidence supports it

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## Mixed Methods

### An approach which combines both quantitative and qualitative methods as part processes in a single research project

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## Operational Definition

### Definition of phenomenon in terms of the precise procedures taken to measure it

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## Participant Variables

### Person variables (eg memory ability) differing in proportion across different experimental groups, and possibly confounding results

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## Population

### All possible members of a category from which a sample is drawn

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## Positivism

### Methodological belief that the world's phenomenon, including human experience and social behaviour, are reducible to observable facts and the mathematical relationships between them. Includes the belief that the only phenomena relent to science are those that can be measured.

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## Qualitative Approach

### Methodological stance gathering qualitative data which usually holds that information about human events and experiences, if reduced to numerical form, loses most of its important meaning for research

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## Qualitative Data

### Information gathered that is not in numerical form

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## Quantitative Approach

### Methodological stance gathering quantitative data following a belief that science requires accurate measurement and quantitative data

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## Random Number

### Number not predictable from those preceding it

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## Randomise

### To put the trials of, or stimuli used in, an experiment into an unbiased sequence, where prediction of the next term is impossible

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## Randomly Allocate

### To put people into different conditions of an experiment on a random basis

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## Reification

### Tendency to treat abstract concepts as real entities

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## Reliability

### Extent to which findings or measures can be repeated with similar results; consistency of measures

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## Sample

### Group selected from population for an investigation

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## Biased Sample

### Sample in which members of a sub-group of the target population are over- or under-represented

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## Cluster Sample

### Groups in the population selected at random from among other similar groups and assumed to be representative of a population

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## Convenience/Opportunity Sample

### Sample selected because they are easily available for testing

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## Haphazard Sample

### Sample selected from population with no conscious bias (but likely not to be truly random)

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## Purposive Sample

### Non-random sampling of individuals likely to be able to make a significant contribution to the data collection for a qualitative project either because of their specific experiences or because of their expertise on a topic

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## Quota Sample

### Sample selected, not randomly, but so that specified groups will appear in numbers

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## Representative Sample

### Type of sample aimed at if results of research are to be generalised; it is hoped that the sample will contain sub-groups of people in direct proportion to their prevalence in the general population

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## Self-Selecting Sample

### Sample selected for study on the basis of members' own action in arriving at the sampling point

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## Simple Random Sample

### Sample in which every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected and all possible combinations can be drawn

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## Stratified Sample

### Sample selected so that specified sub-groups will appear in numbers proportional to their size in the target population; within each sub-group cases are randomly selected

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## Systematic Random Sample

### Sample selected by taking the nth case from a list of the target population; 'random' if starting point for n is selected at random

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## Sampling/Selection Bias

### Systematic tendency towards over- or under- representation of some categories in a sample

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## Sampling Frame

### The specified range of people from whom a sample will be drawn. Those within a population who can be sampled.

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