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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Measuring People Deck (32)
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1

Equal Probability Selection Method (EPSEM)

Procedure for producing a sample into which every case in the target population has an equal probability of being selected

2

Hypothetical Construct

Phenomenon or construct assumed to exist and used to explain observed effects, but as yet unconfirmed; stays an explanation of effects while evidence supports it

3

Mixed Methods

An approach which combines both quantitative and qualitative methods as part processes in a single research project

4

Operational Definition

Definition of phenomenon in terms of the precise procedures taken to measure it

5

Participant Variables

Person variables (eg memory ability) differing in proportion across different experimental groups, and possibly confounding results

6

Population

All possible members of a category from which a sample is drawn

7

Positivism

Methodological belief that the world's phenomenon, including human experience and social behaviour, are reducible to observable facts and the mathematical relationships between them. Includes the belief that the only phenomena relent to science are those that can be measured.

8

Qualitative Approach

Methodological stance gathering qualitative data which usually holds that information about human events and experiences, if reduced to numerical form, loses most of its important meaning for research

9

Qualitative Data

Information gathered that is not in numerical form

10

Quantitative Approach

Methodological stance gathering quantitative data following a belief that science requires accurate measurement and quantitative data

11

Random Number

Number not predictable from those preceding it

12

Randomise

To put the trials of, or stimuli used in, an experiment into an unbiased sequence, where prediction of the next term is impossible

13

Randomly Allocate

To put people into different conditions of an experiment on a random basis

14

Reification

Tendency to treat abstract concepts as real entities

15

Reliability

Extent to which findings or measures can be repeated with similar results; consistency of measures

16

Sample

Group selected from population for an investigation

17

Biased Sample

Sample in which members of a sub-group of the target population are over- or under-represented

18

Cluster Sample

Groups in the population selected at random from among other similar groups and assumed to be representative of a population

19

Convenience/Opportunity Sample

Sample selected because they are easily available for testing

20

Haphazard Sample

Sample selected from population with no conscious bias (but likely not to be truly random)

21

Purposive Sample

Non-random sampling of individuals likely to be able to make a significant contribution to the data collection for a qualitative project either because of their specific experiences or because of their expertise on a topic

22

Quota Sample

Sample selected, not randomly, but so that specified groups will appear in numbers

23

Representative Sample

Type of sample aimed at if results of research are to be generalised; it is hoped that the sample will contain sub-groups of people in direct proportion to their prevalence in the general population

24

Self-Selecting Sample

Sample selected for study on the basis of members' own action in arriving at the sampling point

25

Simple Random Sample

Sample in which every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected and all possible combinations can be drawn

26

Stratified Sample

Sample selected so that specified sub-groups will appear in numbers proportional to their size in the target population; within each sub-group cases are randomly selected

27

Systematic Random Sample

Sample selected by taking the nth case from a list of the target population; 'random' if starting point for n is selected at random

28

Sampling/Selection Bias

Systematic tendency towards over- or under- representation of some categories in a sample

29

Sampling Frame

The specified range of people from whom a sample will be drawn. Those within a population who can be sampled.

30

Target Population

Similar to sampling frame but more theoretical. The assumed population of people from which a sample is to be drawn. Very often the aim is to be able to generalise sample results to this population.