Chapter 8 Psychological Tests and Measurement Scales Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Psychological Tests and Measurement Scales Deck (32)
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1

Likert

Scale using a response format where respondents select responses to an item from an ordered range and a ranked score is given to the response

2

Semantic differential

Scale measuring meaning of an object for the respondent by having them place it between the extremes of several bi-polar adjectives

3

Thurstone

Scale in which raters assess the relative strength of each item and respondents agreeing with that item receive the average 'scale value' for it

4

Visual analogue

Scale where respondents mark their position on a line between two polar opposites and the distance of their make from one extreme is measured and becomes a score

5

Diagnostic item

Scale item not obviously or directly connected to the attitude objects, yet which correlates well with overall scores and therefore has discriminatory power and predictive power

6

Discriminatory power

Extent to which an item, or the test as a whole, separates people along the scoring dimension

7

Disguise

Feature of questioning approach that keeps respondents ignorant of the aims of the questioning

8

Factor analysis

Statistical technique, using patterns of test or sub-test correlations, that provides support for theoretical constructs by locating correlational 'clusters' and identifying explanatory factors

9

Psychometric test

Test the attempts to quantify through measurement psychological constructs such as skills, abilities, character etc.

10

Psychometrist/psychometrician

Person who creates and is a specialist with psychometric tests

11

Psychometry

The technology of test creation for the quantification of psychological constructs

12

Reliability

Consistency of a psychological scale

13

Cronbach's alpha

A measure of scale reliability using the variance of respondents' scores on each item in relation to the overall variance on the scale

14

Item analysis

Checking each item in a scale by comparing its relationship with total scores on the scale

15

Kuder-Richardson

A special form of Cronbach's alpha performed on a test with dichotomous items

16

Split-half

Correlation between scores on two equal parts of a test

17

External

Consistency of a test with itself when administered more than once

18

Test-retest

Testing of the same group of respondents twice on separate occasions in order to estimate external reliability

19

Internal

Consistency between the items of a scale or test. Tendency for people to score at the same strength on similar items.

20

Response (acquiescence) set

Tendency for people to agree with test items as a habitual response

21

Scale value

On a Thurstone scale, the average of judges' ratings of an item; respondent is given this score if they agree with it

22

Spearman-Brown correlation

In split-half reliability testing, provides an estimate of the true split-half reliability value from the correlation between two test halves, recognising that the raw split-half correlation is based on a set of items only half the length of the actual scale

23

Standardisation

Setting up of measurement norms for the populations for whom a psychometric test is intended

24

Test norms

Test statistics for known and identifiable groups who have taken the test. These can be used to make a fair comparison for individual test takers.

25

Validity

Extent to which a test measures the construct that is was intended to measure

26

Concurrent validity

Extent to which test results conform with those on another test assumed to measure the same construct and taken at the same time

27

Construct validity

Extent to which the existence of a construct is established through an interlinked set of diverse research findings. The theoretical establishment of a psychological construct through concerted and logically related psychological research.

28

Content validity

Extent to which test covers the whole of the relevant topic area, as assessed by experts

29

Criterion validity

Extent to which test scores can predict phenomena such as difference between groups

30

Face validity

Extent to which the purpose of a test is self-evident