Chapter 21: Current Trends in Food Preservation: Irradiation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21: Current Trends in Food Preservation: Irradiation Deck (33)
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1

What is Food Irradiation?

Is a cold food preservation method in which food is exposed to high-energy electromagnetic waves

2

How does Food Irradiation work?

Food moves from one end of a radiation field to another on a conveyor belt while electromagnetic waves pass through it

3

How does Irradiation Sterilize?

Irradiation sterilizes by killing insects, and microorganisms

4

What are the things the FDA approves irradiation for?

1. Wheat and wheat flour - to reduce losses to insects and molds
2. White potatoes to reduce losses from rapid sprouting in storage
3. Spices and herbs - to lower the risk of contaminants
4. Pork, poultry and beef - to destroy microorganisms that cause foodborne illness

5

Ionizing Radiation causes what?

Ionizing Radiation causes ions called Free Radicals to form when the radiation comes in contact with food products

6

The increase of Free Radicals with Ionizing Radiation is what?

The increase of free radicals is no greater than what occurs with other food preservation methods, so is not a health hazard

7

What are Free Radicals?

These ions are unstable and create chemical changes that kill microorganisms and block some enzymatic reactions
- Foods with living cells, such as alfalfa sprouts and oysters are damaged by irradiation

8

What happens when Food is Irradiated?

When food is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced
ie) They include carbon dioxide, formic acid and glucose

9

Irradiation is considered what?

Irradiation is considered a food additive since radiolytic products are produced in the food

10

What Macromolecules remain stable after Irradiation?

Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and most vitamins remain stable

11

Irradiation lowers what Vitamins levels/

Irradiation lowers Vitamin B1 (thiamin) levels

12

What are Gamma Rays?

Are given off by radioactive material that releases energy as unstable nuclei break down
- come from sources that must be stored in specially developed underground storage units

13

What type of Energy (Gamma Rays) is/are Used for Food Irradiation?

1. Cobalt-60, the most common
2. Cesium-137, a by product of plutonium

14

What are Electron beams or E-beams?

made of high energy electrons or beta particles produced by electronic machinery; more costly than Gamma Rays

15

Radiant Energy is only present when?

Radiant Energy is only present when machines are running

16

What is the advantage of Electron or E-beams?

Their advantage is no radioactive material needs to be transported or dumped

17

What is Ultraviolet Light?

Is used only for surface treatment because it cannot penetrate food

18

What are X-rays?

penetrate food in varying degrees depending on the density, cannot be focused easily, involve technology still being improved

19

Units of Energy include...?

1. Rad: or radiation absorbed dose, which is the amount of energy absorbed by 1 gram of material
2. Gray: which equals 100 rads
3. Kilogray: which equals 1000 rads

20

Approved irradiation dosage levels what..?

Approved irradiation dosage levels vary with the type of food being treated

21

Studies show what?

Studies show irradiation does not increase the radioactivity of foods

22

Food processing plants do what to prevent human exposure?

Food processing plants make frequent radiation checks as part of many steps taken to prevent human exposure

23

What d studies show about Irradiation?

Studies show irradiation does not increase the radioactivity of foods

24

Food processing plants make what?

Food processing plants make frequent radiation checks as part of many steps taken to prevent human exposure
- packaging materials approved for using with irradiation will not add toxins to foods

25

Education messages explain what?

Education messages explain the safety of food irradiation and its importance in reducing food-borne illness

26

Food Irradiation is supported by what association?

Food Irradiation is backed by the American Medical Association, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and the American Council on Science and Health

27

The FDA has set safety guidelines for?

1. All irradiated foods are tested before they are sold
2. Plans for production plants must be approved before building
3. Production plants are inspected frequently once in operation

28

What is the Nuclear Regulatory Commission?

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates facilities using radioactive sources

29

What is the 1st Group Irradiated foods fall into in terms of labeling?

Group 1:
wheat, wheat flour, spices, herbs, teas, white potatoes, and sprouts
- do not require a label

30

What is the 2nd Group Irradiated foods fall into in terms of labeling?

Group 2:
Whole irradiated foods
- include fresh meats, poultry, fruits and vegetables
- Must have the Radura symbol on their labels
- Must be labeled with the words "treated with radiation" or "Treated by irradiation"