Flashcards in Chapter 13: Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals Deck (36)
What are Vitamins?
Vitamins are organic compounds needed in small amounts in the diet to help regulate body processes
If vitamins are missing what happens to enzyme reactions?
Enzyme reactions are slowed or stopped and body processes impaired if vitamins are missing
How do Scientists identify Vitamins?
Scientists gave vitamins names, letters, or numbers to identify them
What are Fat-Soluble Vitamins?
Have a nonpolar molecular structure and dissolve in fats and oils
- Include Vitamins A, D, E and K
What are Water-Soluble Vitamins?
are polar and dissolve in water and water-based liquids
- Include the B vitamins and Vitamin C
What are some examples of Fat-Soluble Vitamins?
1. Bile from the liver is needed for digestion
2. A surplus is stored in the liver and in fatty tissue for future use
3. They cannot be easily excreted once absorbed
4. Megadoses can build up to poisonous
What is Vitamin A (Fat-Soluble Vitamin A)?
- Aids in night vision
- Maintains healthy skin and internal lining of lungs and digestive tract
- Ensures proper immune system function
- Ensures production and regulation of hormones
- Breaks down bone for reshaping during growth
Vitamin A is found in 2 basic forms in food?
1. Retinol is the active form of Vitamin A and is found in liver, eggs, butter, milk and cheese
2. A precursor for retinol, found in orange and dark green fruits and vegetables is called Beta-Carotene
What is Vitamin D (Fat-Soluble Vitamin D)?
- Can be made by the body with the help of the Vitamin D precursors cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol
- Teams with other nutrients to regulate calcium levels and form bones and teeth
- Is available in butter, cream, egg yolks and fatty fish and by exposing the skin to sunlight
What is Vitamin E (Fat-Soluble Vitamin E)?
- An important antioxidant that quickly reacts with oxygen, preventing damage to body tissues
- Found in vegetable oils, whole grains, avocados, nuts, and seeds
- Not heat stable so foods that are fried have little vitamin E remaining
What is Vitamin K (Fat-Soluble Vitamin K)?
- Necessary for production of proteins involved in blood clotting
- Produced by bacteria in the intestines
- Found in liver and dark leafy greens
What are some examples of Water-Soluble Vitamins?
These vitamins cannot be stored in the body since they dissolve in water
Where are excess quantities of Water-Soluble Vitamins excreted?
Excess quantities are excreted in urine, making it impossible to receive toxic doses of water-soluble vitamins
What are B-Complex Vitamins (Water-Soluble B-Complex Vitamins?
1. Act as coenzymes in reaction throughout the body
2. Are found in leafy greens, legumes, pork, whole grains, eggs, fish and milk
What are The B-Complex Vitamins specializations?
1. Vitamin B1 helps nerve and muscle function
2. Vitamin B2 promotes healthy skin and eyesight
What are the functions of the B-Complex Vitamin?
- Vitamin B3 keeps the skin and nervous system healthy and promotes normal digestion
- Pantothenic Acid promotes growth and helps synthesize vital substances
- Biotin helps the body make fats and glycogen
- Vitamin B6 promotes healthy immune systems and helps make hemoglobin
- Folate helps cells divide to form new cells
What is Vitamin C (Water-Soluble Vitamin C)?
- Is called Ascorbic Acid
- Helps produce connective tissue
- Helps protect against infections
- Helps the body absorb iron and calcium
- Serves as an antioxidant
- Is found in citrus fruits, cantaloupe, tomatoes, strawberries, broccoli
What are Minerals?
Minerals have the simplest structure of all nutrients because they are elements
What are the 2 categories of Minerals?
1. Major Minerals: are needed in amounts of 100mg or more per day
2. Trace Minerals: are needed in amounts of less than 100mg per day
Every whole grain kernel consists of 3 parts, what are they?
Each part of whole grain kernel provides what?
provides different nutrients and other components that contribute to the heath promoting benefits of whole grains
Whole grain foods contain what?
Whole grain foods contain all of these parts in the same amounts of originally present processing
Refined grains are mainly composed of what?
Refined grains are mainly composed of only the endosperm portion of the grain
What does the milling process do?
It removes most of the bran and some germ, along with the majority of fibre, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phytochemicals
As much as 75% of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) are lost in what?
are lost in the refining process
What is Enrichment?
is the process of restoring some nutrients removed from refined grain products during processing
What Laws were passed to prevent deficiencies?
- 1930s: Naicin, thiamin, riboflavin and iron were first added to processed flour
-1996: Folic acid was first added to grain and cereal products
Grain Enrichment does not replace what?
Grain enrichment does not replace many of the nutrients found in whole grains
What is Fortification?
adding nutrients to food to correct a nutritional deficiency