Chapter 16: Additives: Producing Desired Characteristics in Foods Flashcards Preview

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What are Ingredients?

Ingredients are component parts of food products that are generally recognized as safe


What is an Ingredient list?

Indicates what has been combined to make a food product


What is Food Additive?

is any chemical substance that is added to food during preparation or storage and either become a part of the food or affects its characteristics for the purpose of achieving a particular technical effect


What is a Food Additive?

Substances that are used in food maintain its nutritive quality, enhance its keeping quality, make it attractive or to aid in its processing, packaging or storage are all considered to be food additives


Food Additives may or may not have...?

May or may not have nutritional value


Food Additives are regulated by?

Food Additives are regulated by the USDA and the FDA


Food Additives undergo what?

Food Additives undergo extensive testing and research to confirm their safety


What are the Two types of Additives?

1. Intentional food additives
2. Incidental food additives


What are Intentional Food Additives?

are added on purpose to give food specific characteristics


What are Incidental Food Additives?

get into food unintentionally


Both intentional and incidental food additives are...?

Both intentional and incidental food additives are regulated to protect the consumer from health hazards


What is the List of Permitted Food Additives?

All permitted food additives and their conditions of use are listed in the List of Permitted Food Additives


Food Additives are regulated...?

Food additives are regulated in Canada under the Food and Drug Regulations and associated Marketing Authorizations (MAs)


Foods are constantly what..?

Foods are constantly monitored, tested, and reevaluated for safety


The 1938 Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act gave the FDA authority to do what?

To supervise the use of additives in the food supply and set the guidelines for their use


The 1958 Food Additive Amendment prevents what?

Prevents the use of an additive in foods unless the use of an additive in foods unless the FDA is convinced it is safe


Evidence of safety must be based on what?

Scientific Research


A manufacturer of a new additive is required to do what?

To provide proof of safety before receiving approval for its use


To receive FDA approval, a company must take these steps?

1. Test the effectiveness of the additive (does it do what its meant to do)
2. Measures the amount of additive present in the final food product
3. Present all test results to the FDA for review
4. Submit to an FDA hearing at which the public is invited to offer testimony
5. Yield to the FDA's written regulations stating how much and in what foods the additive may be used


The FDA establishes a Margin of Safety for each additive?

1. This is the zone between the concentration in which an additive is used and the level at which a hazard exists
2. Most foods have a margin of safety of 1/100, meaning a person would need to eat 100 servings in a short period to be at risk


The Law Further requires that?

1. An additive cannot be used in place of good manufacturing practices
2. A method must exist for analyzing the presence of the additive in food
3. An intentional additive must perform a useful function
4. An additive cannot be used to deceive the consumer or hide faulty manufacturing
5. An additive cannot cause a substantial loss of nutritive value in a food


The FDA can do what to incoming Food Additives?

The FDA can reject an additive if any of the requirements are not met


What is The GRAS List?

Food additives that had long been used with no known health hazards were exempt from the 1958 Food Additive Amendment
- They were placed on a Generally Recognizes As Safe list, known as the GRAS list


Additives on the GRAS list are classified based on...?

On the type of conclusion the FDA reaches regarding their safety


What is Class 1, GRAS classification? ?

Class 1 - considered safe at present and anticipated levels of use


What is Class 2, GRAS classification?

Class 2 - safe at current usages, but further study is advised on increased levels


What is Class 3, GRAS classification?

Class 3 - permitted restricted use and further research is needed


What is Class 4, GRAS classification?

Class 4 - safer guidelines are needed


What is Class 5, GRAS classification?

Class - 5 recommended for removal


What are Controlled-use substances?

Are conditionally approved additives that do not appear on the GRAS list
- must be used per specific guidelines for the type of food to which they are added
- identified in (ppm)