Flashcards in Chapter 1: Food Science and Old but New Subject Deck (34)
what is food?
material usually of plant or animal material, that contains essential body nutrients, such as carbs, fats, proteins and minerals
what is food science?
he study of the nature of food, the causes of deterioration the principles underlying food processing, and the improvement of foods for consumers
what concepts does food science involve?
math, science, food preparation, health and technical writing
-focuses of what happens to food before you eat it
- it addresses nutrition, or what happens after you eat food
What are some early food discoveries?
- civilization formed where water, game and land were abundant
- food preparation techniques were discovered by trial and error mostly by accident
- food preparation used to take up the majority of humankind's time
historically only a few methods of food preservation existed what were they?
- most foods were consumed "fresh" with no processing
what do developed countries now believe?
today developed countries believe that fresh is more natural because that is how food was consumed back in the day
- but this is FALSE, traditionally foods were generally poor fare, even for the rich
What are staple foods?
There was a heavy reliance on stable foods (rice, potatoes, maize, wheat, etc.) in the olden days. These foods were suitable for storage over long periods of time without decay
The Industrial Revolution did what for the food industry?
- brought specific advances and changes in the economy and food production
- canning reduced food spoilage
- specialized machinery equipment increased food supply
- new ingredients improved food quality and preparation
food processing is only 200 years old, who contributed too food processing?
- Nicolas Appert invented canning in glass jars, the jars were sealed and placed in boiling water
what replaced the glass jar?
- the glass jar was soon replaced by the tin can in which awaited the invention of the can opener 1855
what was ammonia compression and who invented it?
in 1859, ammonia compression was invented by Ferdinand Carre
- this invention allowed year round freezing of food, in 1920's the use of CFC's was a safer alternative to ammonia
- allowed the refrigerator to enter the home
How did Louis Pasteur contribute to the food industry?
he developed pasteurization, which became the basis for all thermal processing
- showed that bacteria caused food-borne disease and heat killed bacteria
What is Adulteration?
ass food production lead to mass ADULTERATION of food products
- ground pepper contained ravel and twigs
- vinegar was diluted with sulfuric acid
- milk had added water and other substances
what is the USDA (The U.S Department of Agriculture)?
had authority to oversee food production and agricultural research (regulates organic foods)
- Harvey Wiley a USDA chemist fought to eliminate misnamed and adulterated foods, this lead to the creation of the FDA
what is the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) ?
regulates 80% of food supply
- Pure Foods and Drugs Act of 1906: Prohibits interstate commerce of misbranded and adulterated foods, drinks and drugs
Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1983: expands the FDA authority to cover cosmetics and establish regulations and guidelines for the food industry
What were regulations implemented for improved food safety?
Food Safety Modernization Act of 2010: focuses on preventing food contamination
What is the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act of 1996?
requires, honest, informative labels
What is the Nutrition Labeling Act of 1990?
requires packaged foods to have a nutrition label and authorizes certain health claims
What is the Food Allergen Labelling and Consumer Protection of 2004?
requires food allergy warning labels
In Canada we have the Food and Drugs Act (FDA):
which is different than the american FDA, it is the primary legislation governing the safety and nutritional quality of food including beverages
What is The Passage of the Safe Foods Acts in 2012?
it set the stage for important changes to Canada's food safety system
what is the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CIFA)?
is responsible for the enforcement of the health and safety requirements in the FDA and its associated regulations
What is the Agricultural and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)?
provides information and support to help industry understand regulatory requirements in order to get innovative food into the marketplace
What is Food Labelling?
FDA, USDA (USA) and CIFA (Canada) laws established to protect food from "farm to table", or from growth until the reach of the consumer
What are food scientists?
know the biology and chemistry of foods and the processes used to improve and preserve them
What is Expanded Food Supply and what are some forms of this?
improved grain production to combat hunger
- Hydroponic Crops
What are Hydroponic Crops?
are grown with their roots suspended in nutrient liquids solutions
What is Biotechnology?
is used to lower productions costs and increase crop yields
New food products now are supposed to do what?
meet demands for inexpensive, tasty, nutritious convenience foods
- Food Analogs
- New Processing Techniques
- Cryogenic Liquids