Flashcards in Chapter 15: Food Analogs - Substitute Ingredients Deck (26)
What are Food Analogs?
Food analogs are natural or manufactured substances used in place of traditional food products or ingredients
What are Food Analogs designed to do?
1. Save money
2. Change the nutritive value of food
3. Improve the performance of foods and compounds
4. Replace foods that are restricted for health reasons
Examples of Food Analogs include?
1. texturize protein made of soybeans that costs less than meat and is lower in fat
2. Artificial sweeteners that are ideal for people with diabetes
What are the Pros of Food Analogs?
- Offer low-fat and reduced calorie options
- Keep prices of food products reasonable
- Allow more food options for people with heart disease, food allergies, and diabetes
What are the Cons of Food Analogs?
- Viewed as drawbacks to the current food supply by some
- Are not "natural"
- May tempt some people to avoid eating a variety of foods
What are Sugar Substitutes?
Add sweetness without adding as many calories as sugar
- Consumer demand for lower-calorie foods tasting like high-calorie favourites prompted their development
What is the difference between nonnutritive and nutritive sweeteners?
Nonnutritive sweeteners provide no calories but nutritive sweeteners do
What is Saccharin (Nonnutritive Sweeteners)?
1. Remains stable in a wide range of foods under extreme processing conditions
2. Was the first artificial sweetener
3. Is 2000 times sweeter than sugar
4. Has a bitter aftertaste in high concentrations
5. Has not been found to cause cancer in humans after 20 years of research
What is Aspartame (Nonnutritive Sweeteners)?
1. Is a dipeptide made from aspartic and the amino acid phenylalanine
2. Taste almost identical to sugar, but is 200 times sweeter
3. Is safely consumed at levels up to 50mg per kilogram of body weight per day
4. Is used in drinks, puddings, gelatins, chewing gum, and frozen desserts
What are Polyols (Nutritive Sweeteners)?
Polypols are a group of low-calorie sweeteners that
- are also known as sweet alcohols
- are found naturally in apples, berries, and plums
- helps control moisture content
What do Polyols do?
1. Improve Texture and reduce browning
2. Extended the shelf life
3. Do not promote tooth decay
3. May act as a laxative if eaten in large amounts
4. Have a synergistic effect in food
5. Are found in baked goods, ice cream, candy and chocolates
Artificial Sweeteners are combined with what to enhance the texture or thicken the consistency of food products ?
What is Polydextrose?
Polydextrose is a bulking agent that mimics the mouthfeel of sugar and is used in reduced-calorie products
What are some other examples of Bulking Agents?
Other bulking agents include alginates, gum acacia, pectin, and xanthan gum
Health concerns caused researchers to develop what?
Health concerns caused researchers to develop substitutes that mimic fat in foods
What do food scientists look for in fat?
Food Scientists look for ways to keep the positive qualities of fat while reducing or eliminating negative qualities
What do lower-calorie fat replacers do?
1. Mimic the mouthfeel of fat
2. Cannot create flaky texture in baked goods
What are the most common types of low-calorie (Starch-based) fat replacers?
1. Vegetable gums, dextrins, malodextrins, polydextrose, and pectin
What does Carrageenan do in low-fat hamburgers?
Carrageenan helps low-fat hamburgers retain juices
What do Starch and Protein-based fat replacers do?
Starch and protein-based fat replacers release flavour all at once rather than gradually
Sugar is ____ in foods with fat?
Sugar is often increased in foods with fat replacers to make up for a lack of flavour
What is Olestra (Manufactured Fat)?
1. is a sucrose polyester with 6 to 8 fatty acids attached at the site of hydroxyl groups on a sucrose molecule
2. Can be solid or liquid depending on the fatty acids used
3. Looks, feels, and perform like fat
4. Cannot be digested by the body and therefore provides no calories
High levels of sodium are connected to what?
High levels of sodium are connected to high blood pressure, a risk factor for heart disease
- This is the reason for salt substitute research
Sodium is a hidden what?
Sodium is often a hidden additive in processed foods
What is Potassium Chloride (Salt Substitutes)?
May benefit heart patients on low-sodium diets that need extra potassium
- has a slightly bitter taste