Flashcards in Chapter 18: Food Safety: Sources of Contamination Deck (53)
What is Contamination?
Is the state of being impure or unfit for use due to the introduction of unwholesome or undesirable elements
When does contamination occur?
It occur when something not normally found in the food is added
What are the 3 types of food contamination?
What are Physical Contaminant?
These are nonliving substances that become part of a food mixture such as
ie) metal fillings, broken glass, rodent droppings and packaging materials
Physical contaminations can..?
1. Create health hazards
2. Occur at any point in food growth or production
Pesticide Residue can do what?
Pesticide residue left on food can enter the food supply
- The USDA and CFIA, monitors pesticides and conducts tests to determine if residues pose a health hazard
Some Toxic substances that may enter water are?
mercury, cadmium, lead, chloroform, and benzene
What is Food Spoilage?
Is a change in food that makes it unfit or undesirable for consumption
Microbes and enzymes often work together to do what?
Microbes and enzymes often work together to cause spoilage
What are Pathogens?
In food cause most of foodborne illness, which involves..
- nausea, stomach cramps, vomiting, diarrhea
What is an outbreak of foodborne illness?
2 or more people becoming ill from eating the same food
How do Pathogens cause illness?
Pathogens cause illness by intoxication or by infection
What is Foodborne Intoxication?
A foodborne illness caused by a toxin released by microbes
What are toxins?
Toxins are metabolic by-products released by microbes that are harmful to humans
Killing microbes does what?
Killing microbe is not enough to make food safe since the toxin must also be denatured
Microbes release what?
Several common microbes release toxins
What is Staphylococcus aureus?
Staphylococcus aureus is commonly found on humans and animals
What is the function of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)?
1. Is gram positive, facultative, and halophilic
2. grows slowly when other bacteria are present
3. Is found in red meats, poultry, potato, macaroni, tuna salads, custards and cream-filled pastries
4. Has a heat-resistant toxin
What are some foodborne illness caused by S. aureus?
1. Can include nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal cramps
2. Is best prevented by proper hygiene, and work habits of food handlers
3. Can be prevent by cleaning and sanitizing food equipment
What is Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum)?
it is an extremely dangerous bacteria
What is the function of C. botulinum?
1. Is found in all soil types and in sediments of marshes and lakes
2. Uses honey and improperly processed home-canned goods as a food source
3. Produces spores that withstand temperatures above the boiling for hours
What are some foodborne illnesses caused by C. botulinum?
1. Is called botulism, a progressive paralysis that can cause death by suffocation
2. Also causes blurred vision and red, sore mouth, tongue and throat
Infants up to 12 months should not be fed what?
Infants up to 12 months should not be fed honey
What is a Foodborne Infection?
A foodborne illness that occurs when microbes release digestive enzymes that damage body tissue and cause illness is as a foodborne infection
- can be caused by bacteria, parasites, and viruses
What is Escherichia coli (E. coli)?
E. coli are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that live in the intestines of mammals
What is the function of E.coli?
1. Infected food handlers and contaminated water transport E.coli to food supply
2. There are 7 strains (serotypes) that cause foodborne illness
3. The main serotype os E.coli O157:H7
What are some foodborne illnesses caused by E.coli?
1. Include diarrhea, nausea, fever, cramps, weakness, aches and vomiting, kidney disease and even death in small children and adults
2. Is often due to food contaminated by exposure to raw fecal matter
3. Is prevented by chlorinating water supplies, washing hands after using the bathroom, and cooking meat thoroughly
What is Listeria monocytogenes?
is a rod-shaped, aerobic, gram-positive bacterium
Where is Listeria monocytogenes found?
1. Found in soil, water and many animals
2. Able to multiply at refrigeration temperatures in 10% salt solutions and at a pH of 9