Chapter 21: Blood Vessels and Circulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21: Blood Vessels and Circulation Deck (71)
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1

the layer of vascular tissue that consists of an endothelial lining and an underlying layer of connective tissue dominated by elastic fibers is the...

tunica intima

2

smooth muscle fibers in arteries and veins are found in the...

tunica media

3

one of the major characteristics of the arteries supplying peripheral tissues is that they are...

muscular

4

the only blood vessels whose walls permit exchange between the blood and the surrounding interstital fluids are...

capillaries

5

one of the primary characteristics of continous capillaries is that they prevent...

the loss of blood cells and plasma proteins

6

the unidirectional flow of blood in venules and medium sized veins is maintained by...

the presence of valves

7

the specialized arteries that are able to tolerate the pressure shock produced each time ventricular systole occurs and blood leaves the heart are...

elastic arteries

8

where does the greatest drop in blood pressure occur?

arterioles

9

if the systolic pressure is 120 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure is 90 mm Hg, the mean arterial pressure(MAP) is...

100 mm Hg

10

the distinctive sounds of Korotkoff heard when taking the blood pressure are produced by...

turbulences as blood flows past the constricted portion of the artery

11

the phenomenon that helps maintain blood flow along the arterial network while the left ventricle is in diastole is...

elastic rebound

12

the most important factor in vascular resistance is...

friction between blood and the vessel walls

13

two factors that assist the low venous pressures in propelling blood toward the heart are...

elastic rebound and mean arterial pressure

14

what correctly identifies all the factors that would increase blood pressure?

increasing CO, decreasing SV, increasing VR, decreasing PR, increasing BV

15

the two major factors affecting blood flow rates are...

pressure and resistance

16

for circulation to occur, the circulatory pressure must be sufficient to overcome the...

total peripheral resistance

17

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduces blood volume and pressure by...

1. blocking release of ADH
2. stimulating peripheral vasodiliation
3. increased water loss through the kidneys

18

the circulatory regulatory mechanisms that can assist in short term and long term adjustments...

endocrine responses

19

the regulatory mechanism that cause immediate, localized homeostatic adjustments is...

autoregulation

20

the central regulation of cardiac output primarily involves the activities of the...

autonomic nervous system

21

an increase in cardiac output normally occurs during...

widespread sympathetic stimulation

22

stimulation of the vasomotor center in the medulla causes __________, and inhibition of the vasomotor center causes __________.

vasoconstriction; vasodilation

23

hormonal regulation by ADH, epinephrine, angiotensin II, and norepinephrine results in...

increasing peripheral vasoconstriction

24

the three primary interrelated changes that occur as exercise begins are...

increasing vasodilation, increasing venous return, and increasing cardiac output

25

the only area of the body where the blood supply is unaffected while exercising at maximum levels is the...

brain

26

other than near the heart, the peripheral distributions of arteries and veins on the left and right sides are...

generally identical on both sides

27

as the external iliac artery leaves the body trunk and enters the lower limb, it becomes the...

femoral artery

28

the link between adjacent arteries or veins that reduce the impact of a temporary or permanent occlusion of a single blood vessel is...

anastomosis

29

the four large blood vessels, two from each lung, that empty into the left atrium, completing the pulmonary circuit, are the...

pulmonary veins

30

the blood vessels that provide blood to capillary networks that surround the alveoli in the lungs are...

pulmonary arteries