Chapter 12- Neural Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12- Neural Tissue Deck (50)
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The two major anatomical subdivisions of the nervous system are the...

Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

1

The central nervous system consists of the...

Brain and spinal cord

2

The primary functions of the nervous system include...

1. Providing sensation of the internal and external environment
2. Integrating sensory information
3. Regulating and controlling peripheral structures and systems

3

Neurons are responsible for...

Information transfer and processing in the nervous system

4

The region of a neuron with voltage gated sodium channels is the...

Axon

5

Neurons are classified on the basis of their structure as...

Anaxonic, unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar

6

Neurons are classified on the basis of their function as...

Motor, sensory, and autonomic

7

Sensory neurons are responsible for carrying impulses...

To the central nervous system

8

Efferent pathways consist of axons that carry impulses...

Away from the central nervous system

9

The two major cell types in neural tissue...

Neurons and neuroglia

10

The types of glial cells in the central nervous system are...

Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells

11

The neuroglia that play a role in structural organization by tying clusters of axons together are the...

Oligodendrocytes

12

Depolarization of the membrane will shift the membrane potential toward...

0 mV

13

The resting membrane potential of a typical neuron is...

-70 mV

14

If resting membrane potential is -70 mV and the threshold is -60 mV, a membrane potential of -62 mV will...

Not produce an action potential

15

An action potential is triggered when...

Local current reaches a voltage that opens voltage gated Na+ channels in the axon hillock

16

If resting membrane potential is -70 mV, a hyper polarized membrane is...

-80 mV

17

A node along the axon represents an area where there is...

An absence of myelin

18

The larger the diameter of the axon, the...

Faster an action potential will be conducted

19

The two most important factors that determine the rate of action potential propagation are the...

Presence or absence of a myelin sheath and the diameter of the axon

20

The reasons that active neurons need ATP is to support the...

1. Synthesis, release, and recycling of neurotransmitter molecules
2. Recovery from action potentials
3. Movement of materials to and from the soma via axoplasmic flow

21

At an electrical synapse, the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are locked together at...

Gap junctions

22

Chemical synapses differ from electric synapses, because chemical synapses...

Involve a neurotransmitter

23

The effect of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic membrane depends on the...

Properties of the receptor

24

Exocytosis and the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft is triggered by...

Calcium ions flooding into the axoplasm

25

The normal stimulus for neurotransmitter release is the depolarization of the synaptic terminal by the...

Arrival of an action potential

26

Compounds that alter presynaptic or postsynaptic function, thereby affecting information processing, are...

Neuromodulators

27

Compounds that have an indirect effect on membrane potential work through intermediaries known as...

Second messengers

28

An excitatory postsynaptic potential is...

A depolarization produced by the arrival of a neurotransmitter

29

An inhibitory postsynaptic potential is a...

Graded hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane