Chapter 25: Metabolism and Energetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 25: Metabolism and Energetics Deck (49)
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1

the term metabolism refers to all of the...

chemical reactions that occur in the body

2

the source that cells rely on to provide energy and to create new intracellular components is the...

nutrient pool

3

the periodic breakdown and replacement of the organic components of a cell is called...

metabolic turnover

4

the process that breaks down organic substrates, releasing energy that can be used to synthesize ATP or other high-energy compounds, is...

catabolism

5

acetyl-CoA cannot be used to make glucose because the...

decarboxylation step between pyruvic acid and acetyl-CoA cannot be reversed

6

in glycolysis, six-carbon glucose molecules are broken down into 2 three-carbon molecules of...

pyruvic acid

7

the first step in a sequence of enzymatic reactions in the citric acid cycle is the formation of...

citric acid

8

for each glucose molecule converted to 2 pyruvates, the anaerobic reaction sequence in glycolysis provides a net gain of...

2 ATP for the cell

9

the complete catabolism of a glucose molecule yields a net of ___________ molecules of ATP.

36

10

lipids cannot provide large amounts of ATP in a short period of time because...

1. lipid reserves are difficult to mobilize
2. lipids are insoluble and it is difficult for water-soluble enzymes to reach them
3. most lipid are processed in mitochondria, and mitochondrial activity is limited by the availability of oxygen

11

lipogenesis is an effective lipid metabolic pathway because lipids, as well as carbohydrates and amino acids, can be converted into...

acetyl-CoA

12

most lipids circulate through the bloodstream as...

lipoproteins

13

lipids are needed throughout the body because all cells require lipids to...

maintain their cell membranes

14

protein catabolism is an impractical primary energy source because...

1. proteins are more difficult to break apart than are carbohydrates or lipid
2. one of the by-products or protein catabolism, ammonium ions, is toxic to cells
3. proteins are important structural and functional cellular components

15

the first step in amino acid catabolism is the removal of the...

amino group

16

an important energy reserve that can be broken down when a cell cannot obtain enough glucose from intersitial fluid is...

glycogen

17

the metabolic pattern characterized by nutrient absorption, anabolism, and insulin dominance is the...

absorptive state

18

a balanced diet contains all of the ingredients necessary to...

maintain homeostasis

19

the metabolic pattern characterized by catabolism of internal energy reserves, elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood, and a focus on maintaining homeostatic blood glucose levels is the...

postabsorptive state

20

foods that provide all essential amino acids in sufficient quantities...

complete proteins

21

inorganic ions released through dissociation of electrolytes and involved in a number of physiological functions are known as...

minerals

22

minerals, vitamins, and water are classified as essential nutrients because...

the body cannot synthesize the nutrients in sufficient quantities

23

examples of trace minerals found in small quantities in the body include...

iron, zinc, copper, and manganese

24

hypervitaminosis involving water-soluble vitamins is relatively uncommon because...

excessive amounts are readily excreted in the urine

25

to examine the metabolic rate of an individual, results may be expressed as...

1. calories per hour
2. calories per day
3. calories per unit of body weight per day

26

an individual's basal metabolic rate ideally represents...

the minimum resting energy expenditure of an awake, alert person

27

if your daily intake exceeds your total energy demands, you will store the excess energy primarily as...

triglycerides in adipose tissue

28

the four processes involved in heat exchange with the environment are...

radiation, conduction, convection, and evaporation

29

the primary mechanism for increasing heat loss in the body include...

vasomotor and respiratory

30

the major metabolic pathways that provide most of the ATP used by typical cells are...

glycolysis and aerobic respiration