Flashcards in Chapter 18: The Endocrine System Deck (80)
Cellular activities are coordinated throughout the body by the endocrine system to...
the endocrine systems regulates long-term processes such as growth and development by using...
chemical messengers to relay information and instructions between cells
situations requiring split-second responses, or crisis management, are the job of the _________ system.
Gap junctions involved in direct communication between two cells of the same type serve to...
1. coordinate ciliary movement among epithelial cells
2. coordinate the contractions of cardiac muscle cells
3. facilitate the prorogation of action potentials from one neuron to the next at electrical synapses
an example of a functional similarity between the nervous system and the endocrine system is...
compounds used a hormones by the endocrine system may also function as neurotransmitters inside the CNS
the endocrine system expresses an organization that allows for...
1. localized effects
2. effects on distant targets
3. simultaneous coordination of many widespread targets
the three different groups of hormones based on their chemical structure are...
amino acids derivatives, peptide hormones, and lipid derivatives
the biogenic amino hormones include...
E, NE, dopamine, melatonin, and thyroid hormones
most peptide hormones are produced as...
the reason steroid hormones remain in circulation longer than the other groups of hormones is because they are...
bound to specific transport proteins in the plasma
hormones alter the operations of target cells by changing the...
types, quantities, or activities of important enzymes and structural proteins
catecholamines and peptide hormones affect target organ cells by...
second messengers activated by G protein complexes when receptor binding occurs at the membrane surface
steroid hormones affect target organ cells by...
binding to target receptors in the nucleus
endocrine cells responding directly to changes in the composition of the extracellular fluid are an example of an...
the hypothalamus is a major coordinating and control center because it...
contains autonomic centers and acts as an endocrine organ
the most notable effect of ADH prooduced in the neurohypophysis of the pituatury gland is to...
decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys
stimulation of contractile cells in mammary tissue and uterine muscles in the female is initiated by secretion of...
oxytocin from the posterior pituatary
the structure that locks the pituitary gland in position and isolates it from the cranial cavity is the...
the pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus by a slender, funnel-shaped structure called the...
the small, oval piptuitary gland lies nestled within a depression of the sphenoid bone called the...
the two classes of hypothalamic regulatory hormones are...
releasing and inhibiting
the two gonadotropic hormones secreated by the anterior pituitary are...
LH and FSH
the hormonal effect of ACTH produced by the adenohypophysis is...
secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex
the gonadotropins FSH and LH exert their hormonal effects in the ______ of the male and female.
an abnormally low production of gonadotropin produces a condition called...
when the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland no longer releases adequate amounts of ADH, the result is development of...
if abnormal amounts of glucocortoids are released by the adrenal cortex, it affects....
the thyroid gland curves across the anterior surface of the trachea just inferior to the...
the hormones produced by the thyroid gland are...
a two-lobed gland united by an isthmus