Chapter 18: The Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18: The Endocrine System Deck (80)
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1

Cellular activities are coordinated throughout the body by the endocrine system to...

preserve homeostasis

2

the endocrine systems regulates long-term processes such as growth and development by using...

chemical messengers to relay information and instructions between cells

3

situations requiring split-second responses, or crisis management, are the job of the _________ system.

nervous

4

Gap junctions involved in direct communication between two cells of the same type serve to...

1. coordinate ciliary movement among epithelial cells
2. coordinate the contractions of cardiac muscle cells
3. facilitate the prorogation of action potentials from one neuron to the next at electrical synapses

5

an example of a functional similarity between the nervous system and the endocrine system is...

compounds used a hormones by the endocrine system may also function as neurotransmitters inside the CNS

6

the endocrine system expresses an organization that allows for...

1. localized effects
2. effects on distant targets
3. simultaneous coordination of many widespread targets

7

the three different groups of hormones based on their chemical structure are...

amino acids derivatives, peptide hormones, and lipid derivatives

8

the biogenic amino hormones include...

E, NE, dopamine, melatonin, and thyroid hormones

9

most peptide hormones are produced as...

prohormones

10

the reason steroid hormones remain in circulation longer than the other groups of hormones is because they are...

bound to specific transport proteins in the plasma

11

hormones alter the operations of target cells by changing the...

types, quantities, or activities of important enzymes and structural proteins

12

catecholamines and peptide hormones affect target organ cells by...

second messengers activated by G protein complexes when receptor binding occurs at the membrane surface

13

steroid hormones affect target organ cells by...

binding to target receptors in the nucleus

14

endocrine cells responding directly to changes in the composition of the extracellular fluid are an example of an...

endocrine reflex

15

the hypothalamus is a major coordinating and control center because it...

contains autonomic centers and acts as an endocrine organ

16

the most notable effect of ADH prooduced in the neurohypophysis of the pituatury gland is to...

decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys

17

stimulation of contractile cells in mammary tissue and uterine muscles in the female is initiated by secretion of...

oxytocin from the posterior pituatary

18

the structure that locks the pituitary gland in position and isolates it from the cranial cavity is the...

sellar diaphragm

19

the pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus by a slender, funnel-shaped structure called the...

infundibulum

20

the small, oval piptuitary gland lies nestled within a depression of the sphenoid bone called the...

sella turcica

21

the two classes of hypothalamic regulatory hormones are...

releasing and inhibiting

22

the two gonadotropic hormones secreated by the anterior pituitary are...

LH and FSH

23

the hormonal effect of ACTH produced by the adenohypophysis is...

secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex

24

the gonadotropins FSH and LH exert their hormonal effects in the ______ of the male and female.

reproductive system

25

an abnormally low production of gonadotropin produces a condition called...

hypogonadism

26

when the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland no longer releases adequate amounts of ADH, the result is development of...

diabetes insipidus

27

if abnormal amounts of glucocortoids are released by the adrenal cortex, it affects....

glucose metabolism

28

the thyroid gland curves across the anterior surface of the trachea just inferior to the...

thyroid cartilage

29

the hormones produced by the thyroid gland are...

a two-lobed gland united by an isthmus

30

the hormones produced by the thyroid gland are...

thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin