Chapter 23: The Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 23: The Respiratory System Deck (70)
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the primary functions of the respiratory system are...

1. to move air to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs
2. to provide an area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood
3. to protect respiratory surfaces from dehydration and environmental variations


the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II in the lung capillaries indirectly assists in the regulation of...

blood volume and blood pressure


the air-filled pockets within the lungs where all the gas exchange between air and blood occurs are the...



the "patrol force" of the alveolar epithelium involved with phagocytosis consists primarily of alveolar...



the respiratory system consists of structures that...

1. provide an extensive surface area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood
2. permit vocalization and production of sound
3. move air to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs along the respiratory passageways


the entry of liquids or solid food into the respiratory passageways during swallowing is prevented by the...

epiglottis folding down over the glottis


structures in the trachea that prevent its collapse or overexpansion as pressures change in the respiratory system are the...

C-shaped tracheal cartilages


the trachea allows for the passage of large masses of food through the esophagus due to...

distortion of the posterior tracheal wall


the function of the hilum along the medial surface of the lung is to...

provide access to pulmonary vessels and nerves


pulmonary surfactant is a phospholipid secretion produced by alveolar cells to...

reduce the cohesive force of H2O molecules and lower surface tension


dilation and relaxation of the bronchioles is possible because the walls of bronchioles contain....

smooth muscle tissue regulated by the ANS


structural features that make the lungs highly pliable and capable of tolerating great changes in volume are...

the elastic fibers in the trabeculae, the septa, and the pleurae


after passing through the trachea, the most complete pathway a molecule of inspired air would take to reach an alveolus is:

primary bronchus->secondary bronchus->bronchioles->terminal bronchioles->respiratory bronchioles->alveolus


the serous membrane in contact with the lung is the....

visceral pleura


the diffusion of gases between interstitial fluid and cytoplasm is...

internal respiration


breathing, which involves the physical movement of air into and out of the lungs, is...

pulmonary ventilation


the process that prevents the buildup of carbon dioxide in the alveoli and ensures a continuous supply of oxygen that keeps pace with absorption by the bloodstream is...

alveolar ventilation


the absorption of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide by cells is...

internal respiration


a single respiratory cycle consists of...

inspiration and expiration


air enters the respiratory passageways when the pressure inside the lungs is lower than the __________ pressure.



the movement of air into and out of the lungs is primarily dependent on...

pressure differences between the air in the atmosphere and air in the lungs


during inspiration, there will be an increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity and an...

increasing lung volume, decreasing intrapulmonary pressure


during expiration, the diaphragm...

relaxes and the dome rises into the thoracic cage


stiffening and reduction in chest movement effectively limit the...

respiratory minute volume


during expiration, there is an...

increase in intrapulmonary pressure


a lack of surfactant secretion onto alveolar surfaces causes the alveoli to...



if there is a PO2 of 104 mm Hg and a PCO2 of 40 mm Hg in the alveoli, and a PO2 of 40 mm Hg and a PCO2 of 45 mm Hg within the pulmonary blood, there will be a net diffusion of...

O2 into the blood from the alveoli; CO2 from the blood into the alveoli


when the partial pressure difference is greater across the respiratory membrane, the rate of gas diffusion is...



the arrangement that improves the efficiency of pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary circulation occurs when...

blood flow and air flow are coordinated


if the partial pressure of oxygen is lower in the pulmonary capillaries than in the alveolus, then...

O2 will diffuse out of the alveolus into the pulmonary capillary