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1

3 term contingency

antecedent- behavior- consequence

2

antecedent

environmental conditions or stimulus changes that exist or occur prior to the behavior of interest

3

automaticity of reinforcement

behavior is modified by its consequences regardless of whether the individual is aware s/he is being reinforced.

4

aversive stimulus

an unpleasant or noxious stimulus;

a stimulus condition that functions
1) to evoke a behavior that has terminated the aversive stimulus in the past
2) as a punisher
3) as a reinforcer when terminated

5

behavior

Portion of the organism’s interaction with the environment

Characterized by displacements in space through time:
Temporal locus (when)
Temporal extent (duration)
Repeatability (frequency)

Results in a measurable change in some aspect of the environment

6

conditioned punisher (CP)

stimulus events or conditions that are presented or that occur just before or simultaneously with the occurrence of other punishers may acquire the ability to punish on their own consequence

7

conditioned reinforcer (CR)

stimulus events or conditions that are presented or that occur just before or simulations with the occurrence of other reinforcers may acquire the ability to reinforce behavior when they later occur on their own consequences.

8

conditioned stimulus (CR)

stimulus created after stim-stim pairing creates a condiitioned reflex

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consequence

Stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest, especially those that are immediate

Relevant to current motivational states

Some influence future behavior, others have little effect

Can be social or nonsocial

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contingency

various types of temporal of functional relations between behavior and antecedent and consequent variables.

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contingent

dependency of a particular consequences on the occurrence of behavior.

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deprivation

the state of an organism with respect to how much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contacted a particular type of reinforcer.
(e.g. procedure of increasing the effectiveness of a reinforcer.

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discriminated operant

a behavior that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than it does under others

14

discriminative stimulus

a stimulus that the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced. (e.g. reinforced is available)

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environment

everything except the moving parts of an organism involved in the behavior; only real physical events included

All behavior occurs within an environmental context;
Behavior cannot be emitted in an environmental void or vacuum

Stimulus

16

extinction

when reinforcement is withheld, the frequency of behavior will gradually decrease to pre-reinforcement levels or cease occur altogether

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habituation

process of gradually diminishing response strength

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higher order conditoning

stimulus-stimulus pairing of an NS with a CS

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History of reinforcement

repertoire of behaviors each person brings to any situation has been selected, shaped and maintained by...

20

Motivating operations

an environmental variable that-alters (increases or decreases) the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of some stimulus
-alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced or punished by that stimulus, object or event.

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negative reinforcement

frequency of behavior increases because past responses resulted in the removal or termination of a stimulus.

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neutral stimulus (NS)

stimulus that dies not elicit a reflex response

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ontogency

individual organism

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operant behavior

any behavior whose future frequency is determined primarily by its history of consequences.

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operant conditioning

process and selective effects of consequences on behavior.

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phylogeny

history of species

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positive reinforcement

a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus and results in the behavior occurring more often in the future

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punisher

decrease of response frequency

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punishment

when a behavior is followed by a stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar situations

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reflex

stimulus- response relation, part of organism genetic endowment