Flashcards in Basic Concepts Deck (53)
3 term contingency
antecedent- behavior- consequence
environmental conditions or stimulus changes that exist or occur prior to the behavior of interest
automaticity of reinforcement
behavior is modified by its consequences regardless of whether the individual is aware s/he is being reinforced.
an unpleasant or noxious stimulus;
a stimulus condition that functions
1) to evoke a behavior that has terminated the aversive stimulus in the past
2) as a punisher
3) as a reinforcer when terminated
Portion of the organism’s interaction with the environment
Characterized by displacements in space through time:
Temporal locus (when)
Temporal extent (duration)
Results in a measurable change in some aspect of the environment
conditioned punisher (CP)
stimulus events or conditions that are presented or that occur just before or simultaneously with the occurrence of other punishers may acquire the ability to punish on their own consequence
conditioned reinforcer (CR)
stimulus events or conditions that are presented or that occur just before or simulations with the occurrence of other reinforcers may acquire the ability to reinforce behavior when they later occur on their own consequences.
conditioned stimulus (CR)
stimulus created after stim-stim pairing creates a condiitioned reflex
Stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest, especially those that are immediate
Relevant to current motivational states
Some influence future behavior, others have little effect
Can be social or nonsocial
various types of temporal of functional relations between behavior and antecedent and consequent variables.
dependency of a particular consequences on the occurrence of behavior.
the state of an organism with respect to how much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contacted a particular type of reinforcer.
(e.g. procedure of increasing the effectiveness of a reinforcer.
a behavior that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than it does under others
a stimulus that the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced. (e.g. reinforced is available)
everything except the moving parts of an organism involved in the behavior; only real physical events included
All behavior occurs within an environmental context;
Behavior cannot be emitted in an environmental void or vacuum
when reinforcement is withheld, the frequency of behavior will gradually decrease to pre-reinforcement levels or cease occur altogether
process of gradually diminishing response strength
higher order conditoning
stimulus-stimulus pairing of an NS with a CS
History of reinforcement
repertoire of behaviors each person brings to any situation has been selected, shaped and maintained by...
an environmental variable that-alters (increases or decreases) the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of some stimulus
-alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced or punished by that stimulus, object or event.
frequency of behavior increases because past responses resulted in the removal or termination of a stimulus.
neutral stimulus (NS)
stimulus that dies not elicit a reflex response
any behavior whose future frequency is determined primarily by its history of consequences.
process and selective effects of consequences on behavior.
history of species
a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus and results in the behavior occurring more often in the future
decrease of response frequency
when a behavior is followed by a stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar situations