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Flashcards in Self-Management Deck (19)
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Self-Control (Skinner)

A two-response phenomenon;

A controlling response affects variables in such a way as to change the probability of the other, the controlled response



the personal application of bx change tactics that produce a desired change in bx

also used to refer to a person's ability to delay gratification


Uses of Self-Management

1) live a more effective and quality life
2) break bad habits and acquire good ones
3) accomplish difficult tasks
4) achieve personal lifestyle goals


Advantages of Learning Self-Management Skills

1) Can influence bxs not accessible to external change events
2) External change agents often miss importance instances of bx
3) Can promote generalization and maintenance of bx change
4) A small repertoire of self-management skills can control many bxs
5) People with good self-management skills contribute to more effective and efficient group environments
6) Self-management is the ultimate goal of education and benefits society


Antecedent-Based Self-Management Tatcics

1) Manipulate Mo's to make a desired behavior (or undesired) behavior more (or less likely). eg. eating before you shop at the grocery store
2) Provide response prompts e.g., sticky note on door to avoid forgetting
3) Perform initial steps of a behavior chain. e.g., place file at door.
4) Remove material required for an undesired behavior, e.g., clearing pantry of goodies
5) Limiting undesired behavior to restricted stimulus conditions, e.g., snacking at the kitchen table only.
6) Dedicate a specific environment for a behavior, e.g., study in office, craft else where.



Procedure whereby a person observes his behavior systematically and records occurrences and nonoccurrences of the target behavior.

Difficult to determine exactly how it works bc the procedure necessarily includes, and is therefore confounded by, covert bx



Comparison of a person's performance by himself with a predetermined goal or standard.

Involves self monitoring with goal setting

Also called 'self assessment'


Self-Monitoring with Reinforcement

Reinforcement package included for achieving self selected or teacher selected goals.

Self Monitoring works because:
Person evokes self evaluative statements that serve either as reinforcement for desired behaviors or as punishment for undesired behaviors.


Accuracy in Self-Monitoring

Neither necessary nor sufficient to achieve improvement in the occurrence of the target bx


Guidelines for Self-Monitoring

1) Provide guidelines that make self-monitoring quick and easy
2) Provide supplemental prompts or cues
3) Self-monitor the most important dimensions of the bx
4) Self-monitor early and often, but do not interrupt the flow of a bx targeted for increase
5) Reinforce accurate self-monitoring


Self-Administered Consequences

Performance management contingencies are best viewed as rule governed analogs of reinforcement and punishment contingencies.

Self administered consequences that increase desired behavior are self management analogs of R+ and R-

Self administered consequences that decrease undesired behavior are self-management analogs of P+ and P-


Recommendations for Self-Administered Consequences

1. Select small, easy to deliver consequences
2. Select a meaningful but easy to meet criterion for reinforcement
3. Eliminate bootleg reinforcement
4. Put someone else in control of delivering the consequences
5. Use the least complicated and intrusive contingencies that will be effective



Talking to oneself

Can function as controlling responses (verbal mediators) that affect the occurrence of other bxs


Habit Reversal

Typically implemented as a multiple-component treatment package involving self-awareness, competing response training, and motivation techniques

Clients are taught to self-monitor their unwanted habits and interrupt the bx change as early as possible by engaging in a bx incompatible with the problem bx


Systematic Desensitization

A bx therapy treatment for anxiety, fears and phobias

Involves substituting one behavior (generally muscle relaxation) for the unwanted behavior (fear/anxiety)


Self-Directed Systematic Desensitization

Involves developing a hierarchy of situations from least to most fearful and then learning to relax while imagining these anxiety-producing situations


Massed Practice

Forcing oneself to perform an undesired bx over and over

Can lead to decreased future frequency of the bx


Fundamental Principle of Self-Management

Bx changes bx


Conducting an Effective Self-Management Program

1) Specify a goal & define the behavior to be changed
2) Begin self-monitoring the behaviour
3) Contrive contingencies that will compete with natural contingencies
4) Go public with your commitment to change your behaviour
5) Get a self-management partner
6) Continually evaluate your self-management program & redesign it as necessary