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Flashcards in Selecting & Defining Target Behavior Deck (29)
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1

anecdotal observation

ABC observation

Descriptive

Temporally sequenced (A-B-C)

Description of behavior patterns

Full attention, 20 - 30 min

Observations only, no interpretations

Repeat over several days

2

ABC recording

observer records a descriptive, temporally sequenced account of all behaviors of interest and the antecedent conditions and consequences in the clients natural environment

3

assessment methods

Methods to identify and define targets for behavior change

Identify relevant factors that may inform or influence intervention

interviews, checklist, test, direct observation

4

behavior checklist

provides descriptions of specific behaviors and the conditions under which each behavior should occur

5

Behavior Definition Importance

Definitions required for replication

Replication required to determine usefulness of data in other situations

Necessary for research

Two Types:
Function-based
Topography-based

6

behavioral assessment

variety of methods including direct observations, interviews, checklist and test to identify and define targets for behavior change

7

behavioral cusp

a behavior that has consequences beyond the change itself, some of which may be considered important.

Behaviors that open person’s world to new contingencies, stimuli and consequences:
Crawling, reading

Importance determined by:
Socially valid
Generativeness
Competes with inappropriate responses
Degree that others are affected

8

checklist

Descriptions of specific behaviors and conditions under which each should occur

Alone or with interview

Typically Likert-scale assessments

Ask about antecedents and consequences
Child Behavior Checklist
Adaptive Behavior Scale - School
Adaptive Behavior Scale - Residential and Community

9

Direct assessment measures

Tests
Direct Observation

Data collected in real time

10

direct observation

Direct and repeated
Natural environment
Identifies potential target behaviors
Preferred method

11

ecological assesment

information gathered about the person adn the various environments in which that person lives and works.
-physiological conditions, physical aspects of environment, interactions with others, home environment, past reinforcement history

12

ecological assessment

Data on individual and environment

Affecting factors:
Physical features
Interactions with others
Home
Reinforcement history

Evaluate amount of descriptive data required to address current need

Cons:
time consuming
costly
too much data

13

Ethical considerations for assessment

Authority
Permission
Resources
Social validity

14

Five Phases of Assessment

1. Screening
2. Defining problem or criteria for achievement
3. Pinpointing target behaviors
4. Monitoring progress
5. Following-up

15

function-based definition

definition that designates responses as members of the targeted response class solely by their common effect on the environment

Includes all members of response class
The function of behavior is most important feature
Simpler and more concise definitions
Easier to measure accurately and reliably

When natural outcome is not within control of behavior analyst
Logistical, ethical, or safety reasons
E.g., Function of elopement is a lost child
In these cases, function-based definition by proxy
More restrictive definition that keeps behavior within control of analyst

16

habilitation

Degree to which a person’s behavior repertoire maximizes short and long term reinforcers and minimizes short and long term punishers

Use to assess meaningfulness of behavior change

Necessary considerations:
Relevance of behavior after intervention
Necessary prerequisite skills
Increased access
Impact on behavior of others
Behavior cusp
Pivotal Behavior
(functionally significant for the client?)

17

Indirect assessment measures

Interviews
Checklists

Based on recollection of events

18

Individual Interview

Identify list of potential target behaviors

What and when
Avoid ‘why’

Identify primary concerns

Verified through further data collection

Direct observation

Use of questionnaires or self-monitoring

19

normalization

use of progressivley more typical environments, expectations and procedures to establish away/ or maintain personal behaviors which are as culturally normal as possible

Age appropriateness

Philosophy of achieving greatest possible integration of people with disabilities into society

20

pivotal behavior

a behavior that once learned, produces corresponding modifications or covariations in other adaptive untrained behaviors.

Self-initiation, joint attention

Advantages for both interventionist and client

21

prioritizing behaviors

1. Threat to health or safety

2. Frequency
Opportunities to use new behavior Occurrence of problem

3. Longevity

4. Potential for higher rates of
reinforcement

5. Importance
Skill development
Independence

6. Reduction of negative attention

7. Reinforcement for significant others
Social validity
Exercise caution when considering

8. Likelihood of success
Research
Practitioner’s experience
Environmental variables
Available resources

9. Cost-benefit
Costs include client’s time and effort

22

reactivity

Effects of assessment on behavior being assessed

Obtrusive assessment great impact
Self-monitoring most obtrusive

To reduce reactivity:
Unobtrusive methods
Repeat observations
Take effects into account

23

relevance of behavior rule

target behaviors should be selected only when it can determined that the behavior is likely to produce reinforcement in the person's natural environment

24

SO Interview

Develop behavioral descriptions
What, when, how
Avoid ‘why’

Move from general to specific

Determine participation

25

social validity

change behaviors to an extent that a person's life is changed in a positive and meaningful way

Consider whose behavior is being assessed and why

Unacceptable to change behavior primarily for benefit of others

To what extent will proposed change improve the person’s life?

26

Standardized tests

Consistent administration

Compares performance to specified criteria

Norm-referenced

Limitations
Do not specify target behaviors
Do not provide direct measure of behavior
Licensing requirements (ex: psychologist only)

27

target behavior

the specific behavior selected for change

28

Target Behavior Ranking Matrix

Numerical rating of potential target behaviors

Increase client, parent, and staff participation

Resolve conflict

Build consensus

29

topography-based definition

definition identifies instances of the target by the shape or form of the behavior

used when behavior analyst does not have direct, reliable, or easy access to functional outcomes
Cannot rely on function of behavior because each occurrence does not produce relevant outcome

When the relevant outcome is sometimes produced by undesirable variations of the response class
E.g., A basketball player scores with a sloppy shot from the free throw line
Definition should encompass all response forms that produce relevant outcomes