Contingency Contracting, Token Economy & Group Contingencies Flashcards Preview

Applied Behavior Analysis > Contingency Contracting, Token Economy & Group Contingencies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Contingency Contracting, Token Economy & Group Contingencies Deck (20)
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1

Contingency Contract (Behavioral Contract)

A document that specifies a contingent relationship between the completion of a specified behavior and access to, or delivery of a specified reward; a contract specifies how 2 or more people will behave toward each other; involves rule-governed behavior

Used widely in classroom, home and clinical settings

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Components of a Contingency Contract

1) A description of the task; 2) A description of the reward; 3) The task record

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Contract Implementation

Involves a complex package intervention of related positive and negative R contingencies and rule-governed bxs that operate alone and together

4

Self-Contract

A contingency contract that a person makes with herself, incorporating a self-selected task and reward as well as personal monitoring of task completion and self-delivery of reward

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Task

Consists of 4 parts: 1) Who is the person who will perform the task and receive the reward; 2) What is the task or behavior the person must perform; 3) When identifies the time that the task must be completed; and 4) How well the task must be performed - it calls for the specifics of the task - the most important part of the contract

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Reward

What will be earned; has 4 parts: 1) Who will judge the task completion and control delivery of reward; 2) What is the reward? 3) When - specifies the time that the reward can be received; 4) How much - specifies the amount of reward;

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Task Reward

Included on the contract to record task completion; serves 2 purposes:

1) to set the occasion for all parties to review the contract regularly;

2) if a certain number of task completions are required to earn the reward, a check mark or similar item, can be placed on the task record each time a task is completed successfully - helps person stay focused

8

Guidelines for Implementing Behavior Change

Consider
1) the nature of the desired behavior change;
2) the verbal and conceptual skills of the participant;
3) the individual's relationship with the person with whom the contract will be made;
4) the available resources;
5) The target behavior must be in the person's repertoire already and must typically be under proper stimulus conrol in the environment in which response is desired;
6) Most effective with behaviors that produce permanent products or that occur in the presence of person delivering reward

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Token Economy

A behavior change system consisting of 3 major components:

1) a specified list of target behaviors;
2) tokens or points that participants receive for emitting the target behaviors; and
3) a menu of back-up reinforcer items that can be exchanged for tokens

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Token

A generalized conditioned reinforcer; given in place of secondary reinforcer for emitting target behavior

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Level System

A type of token economy in which participants move up (and sometimes down) a hierarchy of levels contingent on meeting specific performance criteria

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Steps in Designing a Token Economy

1) Select the tokens
2) Identify target bxs and rules
3) Select menu of back-up R
4) Establish ratio of exchage
5) Define procedures for token exchange and what will happen if the requirements required to earn tokens are not met
6) Field test the system before implementing

(Decisions must be made regarding how to begin, conduct, maintain, evaluate and remove the system.)

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Group Contingencies

One in which a common consequence (usually a reward) is contingent on the behavior one member of the group, the behavior of part of the group, or the behavior of everyone in the group

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Types of Group Contingencies

1) Dependent; 2) Independent; and 3) Interdependent

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Dependent Group Contingency

An arrangement in which a contingency is presented to all members of a group, but reinforcement is delivered only to those group members who meet the criterion outlined in the contingency

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Independent Group Contingency

The reward for the whole group is dependent on the performance of an individual student or small group; a 3-term contingency' also called the hero procedure

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Dependent Group Contingency

One in which all members of a group must meet the criterion of the contingency before any members earn a reward; capitalizes on peer pressure and group cohesiveness

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Advantages of Group Contingencies

1) it can save time;
2) can be effective in producing behavior change;
3) can be used when an individual contingency is impractical;
4) can be used when a problem must be resolved quickly;
5) can capitalize on peer influence and monitoring;
6) can help facilitate positive social interactions and group cohesion

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Good Behavior Game

An interdependent group contingency in which a group is divided into 2 or more teams and compete against each other for a reward

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Guidelines for Implementing Group Contingencies

1) Choose an effective reward;
2) Determine the behavior to change and any collateral behaviors that might be affected;
3) Set appropriate performance criteria;
4) Combine with other procedures when appropriate; 5) Select the most appropriate group contingency;
6) Monitor individual and group performance