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1

Description Level of Understanding

Collection of facts about observed events that can be quantified, classified, and examined for possible relations with other known facts

Often suggests hypotheses or questions for additional research

2

Methodological behaviorism

these early behaviorist either denied the existence of "inner variables" or considered them outside the realm of scientific account

3

Empiricism

Practice of objective observation of phenomena of interest, free from personal opinion/bias - "empirical research"

What all scientific knowledge is built upon

“Objective” is the key to gaining a better understanding of what is being studied

4

Generality

Produces behavior changes that last over time…

Appear in other environments (other than the one in which intervention was implemented)…

Or spread to other behaviors (those not directly treated by the intervention)

5

Behaviorism

The philosophy of the science of behavior. various forms-methodological and radical

6

Radical behaviorism

includes and seeks to understand all human behavior, including private events

7

Parsimony

The idea that simple, logical explanations must be ruled out, experimentally or conceptually, before more complex or abstract explanations are considered

Help scientists fit findings within the field’s existing knowledge base

8

Mentalism

an approach to the study of behavior which assumes that a mental or "inner" dimension exist that differs from a behavioral dimension.

9

Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Skinner recorded the rate at which a single subject emitted a given behavior in a controlled and standardized experimental chamber.

10

Replication

The repetition of experiments to determine the reliability and usefulness of findings

Includes the repetition of independent variable conditions within experiments

Method for which mistakes are discovered

11

Explanatory fiction

a fictitious variable that often is simply another name for the observed behavior that contributes nothing to an understanding of variables that develop or maintain behavior.

12

Determinism

Assumption upon which science is predicted

Presumption that the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which all phenomena occur as the result of other events

Events do not just occur at will

Events are related in systematic ways

Antithesis of fatalism, accidentalism

13

Applied Behavior Analysis

Behavior analysis is comprised of three major branches

Behaviorism
Philosophy of the science of behavior

Experimental analysis of behavior (EAB)
Basic research

Applied behavior analysis (ABA)
Development of a technology for improving behavior

Can only be understood in the context of the philosophy & basic research traditions & findings

14

Defining Characteristics of ABA

Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) recommended the following seven defining dimensions for research or behavior change programs:

Applied
Behavioral
Analytic
Technological
Conceptual
Effective
Generality

15

Analytic

The experimenter can demonstrate a functional relationship and control the occurrence and nonaccurence of the behavior

16

Effective

Improves behavior sufficiently to produce practical results for the participant(s)

Improvements in behavior must reach clinical or social significance

Extent to which changes in the target behavior(s) result in noticeable changes

17

Science

A systematic approach to the understanding of natural phenomena as evidenced by description, prediction and control, that relies on determinism as its prime directive, experimentation as basic strategy, replication as necessary for believability, parsimony as a conservative value, and philosophic doubt as guiding conscience

18

Behavioral

Precise measurement of the actual behavior in need of improvement & documents that it was the participant’s behavior that changed

The behavior in need of improvement and it is a study of behavior (not about behavior)

The behavior must be measurable

Important to note whose behavior has changed

19

Experimentation

Basic strategy in most sciences

Experiment:
Controlled comparison of some measure of the phenomenon of interest (dependent variable) under two of more different conditions in which only one factor at a time (independent variable) differs from one condition to another

20

Prediction Level of Understanding

Observed Correlations that are regular enough to predict that when one event occurs, another is likely to follow

Relative probability that when one event occurs, another event will or will not occur

Based on repeated observation revealing relationships between various events

Demonstrates correlation between events

No causal relationships can be interpreted

Enables preparation

21

Hypothetical construct

a presumed but unobserved process or entity (e.g. Frued's ego, id, and super ego

22

Applied

Investigates socially significant behaviors with immediate importance to the participant; i.e functional skills

Examples include behaviors such as:
Social
Language
Academic
Daily living
Self-care
Vocational
Recreation and/or leisure

23

Philosophic Doubt

The continuous questioning of the truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory and knowledge

Involves the use of scientific evidence before implementing a new practice, then constantly monitoring the effectiveness of the practice after its implementation

24

Purpose of Science

Systematic approach for seeking & organizing knowledge about the natural world
ABA – socially important behaviors

25

Control Level of Understanding

Functional relations can be derived; i.e. a specific manipulation of the IV will create a specific change in the DV, which is not caused by confounding variables.

However, note that events can only really be “co-related;” we cannot know for certain that one causes another because it is nearly impossible to factor out all other possible “causes”

26

Technological

Written description of all procedures in the study is sufficiently complete and detailed enough to enable others to replicate it

All operative procedures are identified and described in detail & clarity

Replicable technology

27

Conceptually Systematic

Behavior change interventions are derived from basic principles of behavior

Better enable research consumer to derive other similar procedures from the same principle(s)

Assist in integrating discipline into a system instead of a “collection of tricks”

28

Functional Relation

Specific change in one event (dependent variable)….
Can reliably be produced by specific manipulations of another event (independent variable)…
And the change in the dependent variable was unlikely to be the result of other extraneous factors (confounding variables)