2.1.B Learning Theories of Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism Flashcards Preview

CPTD Exam Spring 2021 > 2.1.B Learning Theories of Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2.1.B Learning Theories of Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism Deck (23)
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1

How should the foundational theories for learning of behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism impact a TD professional?

They should influence how TD professionals facilitate learning across the workplace

2

What are the three Foundational Theories of Learning?

Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism

3

What is Behaviorism and what does it focus on?

Behaviorism is about predicting and controlling behavior. It focuses on observable behaviors and suggests that learning happens when associations between stimuli and responses are strengthened or weakened.

4

What is the emphasis of behaviorism?

The emphasis of behaviorism is the "reward" and in discovering the external controls that affect internal processes. The objective is to shape behavior through reinforcement until the learner internalizes the reinforcement and the new behavior becomes rewarding in itself.

5

B.F. Skinner developed the theory of operant conditioning. What is operant conditioning?

The concept that behavior is shaped by the consequences of reinforcement or punishment.

6

What are some advantages of behaviorism?

-It establishes objectives that are clear and unmistakable

-It ensures behavioral practice, not just theory

-It works best for helping learners acquire behavioral skills

-It is highly specific is observable (learners know when they have succeeded).

7

How was behaviorism used to shape programmed learning?

Information to be learned is divided into small steps. As learners respond at each step they are immediately told if the answer is right or wrong. Learners progress through the materials, and their behavior is gradually shaped until the objective is achieved.

8

What is Cognitivism?

Cognitivism is about how people think and remember, and "tries to understand understanding" (Clark 1999). Cognitivism focuses on mental processes that involve how people perceive, think, remember, learn, solve problems, and attend to one stimulus rather than another.

9

What are the primary differences between Cognitivist and Behaviorist learning?

While behaviorist learning theory is focused almost exclusively on external events, cognitive learning theories focus on what is happening internally (Sink 2014). Behaviorists identify "thinking" as a behavior; cognitivists, on the other hand, argue that how people think influences their behavior and therefore cannot be a behavior itself.

10

What is the cognitive approach based on?

The cognitive approach is based on the principle that learning occurs primarily through exposure to logically presented information, and retrieval or rehearsal leads to retention.

11

What are some of the advantages of cognitivism?

-treats people as adults

-focuses on thinking skills

-emphasizes foundational knowledge

-builds a base of information, concepts, and rules

-provides the rationale upon which action is based (Sink 2014).

12

What is the focus of Constructivism?

Constructivism focuses on knowledge acquisition through experiences and interactions with the environment.

13

According to Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget, learners construct knowledge from which two processes?

According to Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget, learners construct knowledge from assimilation and accommodation. When individuals assimilate, they incorporate a new experience into an already existing framework without changing that framework

14

Assimilation is a part of Piaget's constructivism theory. What does it mean?

Assimilation is part of Piaget's constructivism theory to describe how a learner fits an idea into what they already know.

15

Accommodation is a part of Piaget's constructivism theory. What does it mean?

Accommodation is part of Piaget's constructivism theory to describe how a learner must reshape or change what they already know. (This is a more substantial change than assimilation.)

16

According to Constructivism, accommodation is the mechanism in which failure leads to what?

Learning. Learning involves carefully designed experiential opportunities similar to what learners encounter in the real world.

17

What do Constructivists focus on when building training?

Constructivists focus on the learner and place importance on the individual’s culture, believing it influences how people learn.

18

According to Constructivists, learners are motivated to learn only under what conditions?

Constructivists also think that learners are motivated to learn only when they believe they can be successful.

19

What are some advantages of constructivism?

-is discovery-oriented

-centers on learner understanding

-builds learner understanding with real-world relevance

-allows for differences in learner backgrounds and experiences

-has facilitators guide learners through the learning process (Sink 2014).

20

A TD professional is onboarding a small group of multigenerational employees. She wants to create a constructivist learning experience that will help them understand the company. Choose the best answer.

A. Connect all of the ideas for the experience on a popular movie like Star Wars.

B. Gamify the experience so team gets points for answering questions about the company correctly.

C. Personalize the experience so learners can begin to understand the company based on their own lens.

D. Create an engaging experience where every learner can learn discover the company in a meaningful and playful way.

D. Create an engaging experience where every learner can learn discover the company in a meaningful and playful way.

21

Which learning theory is this an example of?

The learner is a sense maker; the teacher is a guide who provides guidance and modeling on authentic learning tasks.

Constructivist

22

Which learning theory is this an example of?

Learning to drive a car is a psychomotor skill that must be practiced until certain skills are automatic.

Behavioral

23

Which learning theory is this an example of?

Training for IT professionals included writing user requirements with feedback; Just in time (JIT) interactive, lectures, review and then augmented reality games.

Eclectic (a blend)

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