Flashcards in 2.1.A - Knowledge of theories and models of adult learning Deck (27)
What are Learning Objectives vs. Training Objectives?
A Learning Objective demonstrates what your participants have learned and can perform as a result of the training.
A Training Objective is what the instructor hopes to accomplish during the training session.
"Learning Objectives are a required step in every good training design. Training Objectives help the trainer to focus on designing and delivering a first-class training program by setting targets for the trainer to achieve."
What does ISD stand for and which is the most commonly used ISD today?
ISD = Instructional Systems Design
Most common = ADDIE
Which stage of ADDIE do you write learning and training objectives?
What do learning theories do?
Attempt to describe what is happening when people learn.
What are the 9 instructional events as outlined by Robert Gagnes?
• Gain the learner’s attention.
• Share the objectives of the session.
• Ask learners to recall prior learning.
• Deliver the content.
• Use methods to enhance understanding; for example, case studies, examples, graphs.
• Provide an opportunity to practice.
• Provide feedback.
• Assess performance.
• Provide job aids or references to ensure transfer to the job.
Which of the following DOES NOT enhance the transfer of learning? (according to Eduardo Salas et al 2012)
A.) Conducting a training needs analysis
B.) Preparing the Learning Climate
C.) Preparing Supervisors and Leaders
D.) Measuring Readiness
D.) Measuring Readiness
Transfer of learning is dependent upon what happens before training, after training, and the involvement of the learner's immediate team.
What are the 6 principles of Adult Learning as outlined by Malcolm Knowles?
1.) Adults need to know why something is important
2.) They need to have a self-concept of who they are
3.) They bring life experiences and want to be recognized
4.) They prefer relevance
5.) They are practical
6.) They are internally motivated
Trainers should help training participants understand how the content they will be learning is going to affect them, why they should care, and how it will make a difference for them at work or in their lives. This is an example of attending to which Adult Learning principle in practice?
Adults need to know why something is important
Trainers should help adult learners to identify their own needs and knowledge gaps so that they can direct their own learning and establish their own goals. This is an example of which Adult Learning principle in practice?
Adults need to have a self-concept of who they are
Trainers should create a safe environment for learning as a strategy to avoid negatively impacting the adult learner's sense of self. This is related to which Adult Learning principle?
Adults are internally motivated. They are more responsive to internal motivators, such as increased self-esteem, than they are to external motivators, such as a higher salary.
Trainers who determine learner needs and interests and then develop content around those needs will be most helpful to adult learners because of which Adult Learning principle?
Adults are practical. They are willing to invest energy into things that they believe will help them perform better or approach future problems more effectively.
Workplace training should relate directly to situations that adults face at work. This is an example of which Adult Learning Principle?
Adults prefer relevance
Benjamin Bloom's group expand their original 3 learning domains (cognitive/knowledge, psychomotor/skills, and affective/attitude) into a hierarchical ordering of the affective and behavioral learning outcomes by subdividing each domain where each level builds on the one prior. What are Bloom's six Behavioral levels?
"Compare and contrast" is an example of which of Bloom's 6 behavioral levels?
Example: "Compare and contrast aspects of Bloom's model"
Assess or judge is an example of which of Bloom's 6 behavioral levels?
Example: "Evaluate and defend the benefits of Bloom's taxonomy"
Name, list, or recall are examples of which of Bloom's 6 behavioral levels?
Example: "Name six levels of Bloom's taxonomy."
Translate or describe are examples of which of Bloom's 6 behavioral levels?
Example: "Explain Bloom's six levels."
Demonstrating or using knowledge in a new situation is an example of which of Bloom's 6 behavioral levels?
Example: "Apply Bloom's theory to write learning objectives."
"Prepare a new whole from parts" is an example of which of Bloom's 6 behavioral levels?
Example: "Design a new learning model"
What are the 3 parts of a Performance-Based Objective as outlined by Robert Mager?
1) A performance or action,
2) Conditions under which the learner must perform
3) the criteria (by which the performance is evaluated by another, or, in other words, how well the action must be completed).
What is an example of a Performance-Based Objective as outlined by Robert Mager?
"You will be able to write effective learning objectives by the end of this module 100 percent of the time."
What are Robert Gagné's five types of learning?
Intellectual skills (refers to learning concepts, rules, and procedures. In a sense, it’s about knowing how to perform a task.)
Cognitive strategy (refers to learners employing their own learning strategies for taking in information, remembering it, and applying it.)
Verbal Information (refers to information the learner can declare or state that they will use to make sense of new information.)
Motor Skills (refers to carrying out practical tasks or following a procedure.)
Attitude (refers to the bias or values that influence a learner’s action toward something.)
How can TD professionals use modeling to foster learning?
TD professionals can use modeling as a vehicle for reflection, such as modeling a behavior and then asking the learners to provide constructive feedback.
Which learning theory is said to bridge behaviorism and cognitivism?
Social cognitive theory
Said to bridge behaviorism and cognitivism, social cognitive theory has prompted educators to incorporate modeling into their teaching to help participants learn new patterns or behaviors, known as the modeling effect, or reduces existing ones, known as the inhibitory effect (Bandura and Walters 1963).
Which learning theory would a TD professional be drawing upon if they were to create experiences where participants model behaviors or perform tasks in a way that offers an opportunity for other learners to watch and imitate?
Social cognitive theory
How can a TD professional use cognitive learning principles in instructional design to decrease cognitive load?
Break content into chunks so it doesn’t overload the working memory. Use both visual and verbal (dual encoding theory) for descriptions. Provide worked examples to help learners make sense of new learning.