trauma and stressor related disorders REVISE Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in trauma and stressor related disorders REVISE Deck (17)
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what are the 2 disorders included in DSM 5s category of trauma and stressor related disorders?

posttraumatic stress disorder
acute stress disorder


neurobiological contributers to PTSD

smaller-than-average hippocampal volume (deals with memories related to emotion)

greater activation of amygdala (deals with emotional response) and diminshed activation of medial prefrontal cortex (mediates decision making)


does the cause of PTSD have to be a one off event?

no, may develop after a one off event but also due to continuous trauma


what is meant by hyperarousal in PTSD?

fear circuit activated when person thinks/is reminded of the traumatic event

easily scared
sleeping problems
sense of guilt


what is meant by 'freezing' in ptsd?

sufferers become withdrawn and apathetic in attempt to avoid certain stimulus related to the traumatic event


how can the cause of ptsd be vicarious?

you could witness a traumatic event happen to someone else and developed PTSD


what is PTSD?

a disorder developed after an individual lives through or witnessing a traumatic event perceived as life threatening and experiences terror and helplessness


what are the 4 characteristics of symptoms of ptsd?

1. painful recollections / nightmares about the event in vivid detail

2. avoidance of situations which may recall the traumatic event and emotional unresponsiveness (emotional numbing)

3. hyperarousal leaving to being easily startled and high survivor guilt

4. mood and cognitive change after trauma e.g negative cognition


what are the bimodal reactions of PTSD

freezing and hyper experiences


what is acute stress disorder?

when ptsd symptoms last between 3 days to 4 weeks


association of rape with PTSD?

1/3 of rape victims (women) meet criteria for PTSD

rape is most common trauma preceeding PTSD in women


difference in diagnosis criteria betwen DSM4 and DSM5?

DSM4 - required to experience intense fear and helplessness during event
broader classification of trauma events e.g watching the news

DSM5 - not required to experience this as many record feeling detached from their emotions during event
symptoms must begin after trauma


what are some of the risk factors for ptsd?

neurbiological (amygdala and hippocampul volume)


severity and nature of event


what is meant by 'coping' as a risk factor for ptsd?

more likely to develop ptsd if cope by trying to avoid thinking about it

and if experience dissociation (feeling removed from emotions and unable to remeber event)

more able to cope if strong social support and higher intelligence to make se


what is meant by 'severity and nature' as a risk factor of PTSD?

severity - the more severe the evnt the more likely one is to develop ptsd

nature - more likley to develop ptsd if event is a human disaster rather than natural e.g assault over tsunami


medications as a form of treatment

SSRIs have received strong support

however, similiarly to anxiety disorders, relapse is common if medication discontinued


psychological treatment for ptsd

exposure treatment (imaginal, in vivo, virtual etc) focusing on memories and reminders of trauma and to extinguish anxiety felt towards them

EMDR - imagery and finger tracking and voicing negative thoughts and thinking about positve thoughts