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Flashcards in mood disorders REVISE Deck (45)
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1

what is a mood disorder?

disorder in which primary disturbance appears to be one of mood

2

what are the two types of mood disorders?

unipolar
bipolar

3

what does unipolar mean?

experiencing low mood only

4

what does bipolar mean?

experiencing high mood, usually also with low mood

5

what are some symptoms of depression?

sadness, worthlessness, poor sleep, guilt, appetite changes

6

what are the signs of someone having depression?

socially withdraw, fatigued, poor concentration, inactive, aches and pains

psychomotor retardaion - thoughts and movements may slow down

psychomotor agitation - don't being able to sit still and fidget

7

what is anhedonia?

lack of feeling of pleasure

8

what is major depressive disorder?

5 depressive symptoms to be present for at least 2 weeks

episodic as symptoms may be present (up to 5 months) for a while then clear

9

what is double depression?

when a person has both persistent depressive disorder and major depressive episodes

10

what is the lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder and of dysthymia?

MDD - 16.2%

dysthymia - 2.5%

11

consequences of depression?

number 1 cause of disability in the world

2-9% of people with depression commit suicide (compared to 1% of general population)
10% of young adults commit suicide

greater risk of medical diseases

12

what does relapse mean?

a return of current episode

13

what does recurrence mean?

start of a new episode

14

what does acute mean?

it is currently hapening (doesn't relate to severity)

15

stats for greater risk the more episodes tha are had?

more than 3 episodes 40% relapse within 3 months and 70% within 6 months

16

neurobiological factors of depression

genetics

neurotransmitters

brain abonormalities


moderate genetic risk - heritability of major depressive disorder is 37%

neurotransmitters - diminished function of the dopamine system (reward-motivation)
lowered sensitivity in serotonin receptors (happiness and mood regulation)


brain abnormalities - hyperreactivity of amygdala (processing of emotions) and diminished activity of hippocampus (emotional regulation) to emotional stimuli

17

biological treatments of depression

antidepressants e.g SSRIs
fewer side effects than old anti-depressants
less effective at preventing risk of relapse

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
used as a last treatment option for extremely depressed and suicidal people as major ethical implications

18

cognitive factors of depression

Beck's theory:

negative triad of beliefs caused by negative event
causes inner speech full of negative propaganda - Negative Automatic Thoughts (NATs)

rumination theory:

dwell on sad experiences

19

cognitive treatment for depression

what it targets

what it involves

CBT:
targets rumination of NATs
aims to change perspective of thinking, remembering etc.

tracks and challenges NATs by setting homework to find evidence for the NATs

behavioural activation:
increase participation in posiively reinforcing activites

leads to mastery (can do that) and pleasure (positive change in mood)

20

issues with treatments for depression?

don't help prevent relapse once treatment has ended
need for maintenance treatments

21

gender difference in diagnosis of depression and reasons for this difference?

Major Depressive Disorder is twice as common in women as it is in men

twice as many girls exposed to sex abuse
women more likely to be exposed to chronic stressors such as poverty
acceptance of social roles e.g focusing on appearace

22

what percentage more likely to survive depression if they had stronger social relationships?

50%

23

what is bipolar disorder 1?

one or more manic episodes within lifetime

24

what is bipolar disorder 2?

one or more major depressive episodes plus at least one hypomanic episode

25

what is cyclothymic disorder?

brief spells of mild hypomania and mild depression over a 2 year period

15-20% develop bipolar 1 or 2

26

difference between mania and hypomania?

hypomania doesn't involve impairment to everyday life and doesn't cause problems

person just feels more productive and energetic and irritable

27

what is the prevalence of bipolar 1?

1%

28

what number of leading disability in the worldis bipolar 1?

9th

29

what is the suicide rate of bipolar disorder 1?

25x that of normal population
highest of all mental disorders and maybe drawing with schizophrenia

30

what is the lifetime prevalence of all bipolar disorders?

4%