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Flashcards in sleep REVISE Deck (37)
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1

when do babies get a sleep wake cycle of 24 hours?

by around 6 months

REM sleep takes up around 50% of sleep duration

2

what is the role of the SCN?

controls the timing of the sleep wake cycle and co-ordinates it with other circadian rhythms

as well as other functions like attention and body temperature

internal body clock

3

what is the role of melatonin in sleep?

hormone released by the pineal gland into the bloodstream at around 9pm as instructed by the SCN (using environmental cue of light detected by the retino-hypothalamic tract)

induces sleep by regulating the sleep-wake cycle

secretion stops around 7.30am

4

where is the SCN located?

in the anterior hypothalamus

5

what time are we in our deepest sleep?

2am

6

what is the role of cerebral spinal fluid in sleep? as shown by mice?

it is pumped around the brain (10x faster than when awake as brain cells shrinkwhen asleep so space between them 60% greater) and flushes out waste products e.g toxic proteins whose build up can lead to dementia

7

issue with generalisation of brain research on mice to humans?

what happens in a mouse brain might be very different to what happens in more complex human brain as
"sleep in humans has evolved far more sophisticated functions for our cortex than that for the mouse"

might be many other functions of sleep in the human brain due to it's superior complexity

8

what are the systems benefits of sleep to the body?

restoration of vigilance, learning and cognition

memory consolidation and integration

occurs in REM sleep

9

cellular level benefits of sleep?

restoration of energy, supplies, cellular homeostasis and extracellular space

lack of sleep reduces number of infection fighting antibodies and so is less effective at fighting infectious disases
lack of sleep inhibits wound healing process

occurs in NREM sleep

10

role of the hypothalamus?

arousal level

contains the SCN acting as an internal pacemaker
contains the VLPO which inhibits activity in areas that maintain wakefulness

11

role of the limbic system?

drive and emotional reactivity

12

what is the role of the amygdala?

processing emotions and forms part of the limbic system

13

role of frontal lobe?

assess, plan, inhibit, act (control pannel)

contains Broca's area in the left frontal gyrus
responsible for language production

14

role of parietal lobe?

sensory actions and visual information

15

role of temporal lobe?

language and memories

contains Wernicke's area in left temporal gyrus
responsible for comprehension of language

16

role of occipital lobe?

vision

17

what is the cycle of human sleep

90 mins of alternating NREM and REM (25%) sleep

18

what are the 3rd and 4th stages of sleep known as and what occurs in them?

'slow-wave sleep'
muscles relax and increased blood flow to them
body repairs and energy stores replenished

19

signals of deprived REM sleep?

perceptual distortions, mood impairment, impaired concentration

20

which lobe is inactive during sleep and why?

the frontal lobe as no decisions need to be made

21

which area is active during sleep and why?

the temporal area as it deals with memory

22

what percentage of the average persons dreams are nightmares?

70%

23

names of some sleep disorders

sleep apnea
snoring
narcolepsy
sleepwalking
limb movement disorder

24

psychological causes of sleep problems

other mood disorders:
depression - difficulty waking or getting to sleep and tired in the day
anxiety - frequent waking as alert and awake very early

stress: e.g fears in night

anxiety about sleep

25

health, habits and environmental causes of sleep problems

health : pain / medication
drinks : caffeine, alcohol, need to go to toilet
poor sleep routine: sleeping in day, shift work, surroundings e.g noisy

26

prevalence of insomnia

1 in 9 have nightly insomnia (1999) (Ancoli-Israel and Roth)

27

strategies for better sleep?

put the day to rest
block thoughts - counting backwards
relaxation - breathing and imagery
challenge negative thinking
don't watch the clock

28

what is the associated between sleep disorders and mood/mental health disorders?
and why?

bi-directional
e.g anxiety may cause sleep disorder as alert at night but lack of sleep may cause anxiety

29

what is primary insomnia?

difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or nonrestorative sleep for at least 1 month (4 nights a week)

30

how long does caffeine take to get out of our system?

6 hours