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Flashcards in Strategies and Tactics Deck (611)
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Hazards in stripmalls:
Occupancies are often _____
Each occupancy presents _____
Almost every roof is _____ or ______
In the attic fire can run unchecked ______
Metal roof decks will allow fire spread by ___
Tar is used on metal + wood roof decks it is ___

Different hazards + fire behavior
Lightweight wood or metal roof - 1 truss fails multiple will fail

Combustible and can ignite


Strip malls or strip center construction

Long narrow one story buildings
Typically masonry walls
May or may not have fire walls
Front of building often have large _____ + ____, that may be secured at night by ______ or _______

Rear door are usually

Windows + glass doors

Roll gates and shutters

Standard single 32 to 36 swinging door


Overhaul in commercial building:
It may be necessary to request:
Because they undergo visual change to try to keep buildings looking new, ______ are created by renovations.

Materials not exposed to fire should be:

Outside contractors Ex. Forklifts, cranes

Voids + hidden spaces

Covered or removed


Ventilation in Commercial building

____ may be required
____ may be necessary
Fans can be used w/ horizontal vent but remember:
If you open skylights or vents, make sure:

Verticle Ventilation
a trench cut
May intensify or spread fire
It is as close to the body of fire as possible


Extinguishment in Commercial if fire already so large handlines are ineffective:
FF should use:
Make use of any:
Hand lines of _______ inches or more are needed
Do not attack the fire with:
Larger hose=

Heavy elevated streams, ground monitors, large handlines, deck guns
Built in fire protection systems
2 1/2
Less than the volume required
Less friction loss, more water at point of attack


When fire spreads from floor to floor as a result of fire coming out of a window and into the one above. Also may be called _____

Auto extension or autoexposure


Commercial Buildings
_____ and _____ is common in people today
They may not leave when alarm sounds.
Exposure protection should be ____ and ____
Exposure method on closely exposed buildings:
Hoseliness should be placed to support:
Large open areas make confinement tough heat and smoke and fire can spread by _____

Complacency and disregard
Internal and external (large structures)
Flow water using large hose lines or master streams on the exposed buildings
* Autoextension is possible by extension of fire through windows


Search and rescue in Commercial buildings:
People tend to leave:
Check rear exits because:
Evacuation should begin:
______ may be a option depending on:

The way they came in
They can be blocked by storage (look for victims)
Firebuilding , 2 adjacent buildings, work outward
Shelter in place
Depending on severity of the incident and number of evacuees


Commercial Buildings
High ceilings make it hard to assess true heat intensity ______ can occur with very little warning

Many occupants also build ______ for storage


a second floor
* collapse hazard
* Life hazard is typically reduced in the overnight hrs. however some stay running 24/7, also ,some apps on the floor above


Accountability must be established:
Preferably a RIC should be assigned:
Storage often blocks:
It is essential to have a :
FF's working without hoselines should use:

At every entrance and exit point
at every entrance
Means of egress in the rear of the strucuture
well thought out evac plan
a guide rope


Comm Building

It is best to begin preplanning when:

The building is under construction


Commercial occupancies can be broken down into 3 catgories

Mercantile - Retail business, supermarkets, dept store, drug store

Business - Courthouses, barbershops, doc office, they provide a service to the public

Industrial properties - Factory or a manufacturing location


ONCE ______ is accomplished in a MFD _____ operations can begin




Both ______ and _____ are indicated for garden apt's

Horizontal and vertical ventilation


Garden Apt

typically have balconies with large glass openings. Fire can ____
Balconies can store:
Usually TL's can't be used because

Extend rapidly through these opening to the upper floors and the cockloft

Hazardous materials

They can't reach the building


Generally constructed of wood
built during baby boomer generation
can be covered by siding or brick veneer
2 to 4 stories high
up to several hundred ft in length
present large fire loads
placement of entrances causes access problems

Garden apartments
(because they are surrounded by landscaping instead of concrete)


Brownstone MFD's
Brickwalls separate each building including:
When a pocket door is closed
if the fire is located on the first floor
the first line should be pulled to:

the cockloft area

it creates void for vertical extension

the second floor to protect the stairs from fire spread or a second line can be stretched to the first floor entrance to extinguish the fire. The latter method is preferred.
Pg 264


Brownstone MFD's

Built with a high stoop that leads:
Under the high stoop is the ______ entrance
Below that is the ________

Second floor parlor * main floor

first floor or basement



Built using non fire resistive materials
exterior is made of stone masonry, which is how it got its name
3 to 5 stories high
used to be occupied by a rich family
now every invidual room is rented out and tenants share kitchen and bathrooms
Can take up entire block

Brown stone
Multiple family dwellings


Row Frame MFD's
In a rapidly spreading cockloft fire:
Top floor fires are very dangerous
______ is critical
_____ is often necessary

Crews may have to operate a few buildings down to get ahead of the fire

Roof ventialtion

Trench cut


Row Frame MFD

Because of maneuverability _____ or ____ inch hoselines are recommended

Should also stretch lines to :

Any line stretched must be:

1 1/2 or 1 3/4

Top floor of fire building and top floors of adjoining structures

Long enough to cover the entire structure, front to rear


One of the greatest threats to FF safety in row frame MFD is :
It is prudent to begin roof ops ______
Preferred access to roof in a row frame is ____
FF operating on fire escapes should be aware that

* common cockloft*

underestimating the amount of manpower needed


Tower ladder (common attic space)

It can pull away from the building and collapse


General concern with row frame MFD's:

Timing is _______

Rapid fire spread / potential for collapse

* could very well dictate whether you lose one building or an entire block
* common cockloft


Constructed soley of wood .
Built side by side
arranged in a row
as many as 20 in a row
can be 5 stories high
1 or 2 apps per floor

Row frame multiple family dwelling

Fire resistive material are not used

* common cockloft


Fire resistive MFD's

Backup line should be stretched:

They could have _____ or _____ running vertcally through them

If there is a fire in there ______

_____ is not usually a consideration, but open the _____ just in case

At least 2 floor below fire floor in the same stairway as the first line

Incinerators or compactors

Put a line in the shaft first floor above burning material

Verticle ventilation
open the bulkhead


Exposure protection in fire restive MFD's should focus on ______

If flames are impinging on upper floors:

As engine Companies are hooking up attack lines, the ladder company should be ______

Adjoining apartments
* because of fire resistive construction

Get homeliness up there ASAP

Locating the fire apartment


Fire Resistive MFD

Before engine companies advance their lines the IC need to ensure:

All occupants have evacuated all floors above the fire and the attack stairway


Fire Resistive MFD

The floor above the fire floor generally does not become _______ in this type of construction, But it still must be searched.

One stairway should be ______

When using an elevator to get to the fire floor stop ________ ****

an exposure problem

Designated only for evacuation no FF ops

* stop at least 2 floors below


Fire resistive MFD

Water supply for standpipes can be ____ or __

There is NO justification to ______

A FF with a radio should stay ______

In all situations the standpipe system should be _____

It will take several FF to _____

City water main , gravity tank on roof

Hook up to a standpipe on the fire floor

At the valve wheel to control water pressure

Augmented by the FD

Advance a 2 1/2 down a hallway


Fire resistive MFD

ON an upper floor fire ______ can make extinguishment extremely difficult

Wind conditions

Where the windows have self vented fire will be funneled by the wind