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The combustibility of the interior finishes effects the behavior of fire and what several ways:

-It can contribute to the fire extension by flame spread over the surface of walls and ceilings
- It affects the rate of growth (which can lead to flashover).
- it add to the intensity of fire because that contributes fuel
- it can produce smoke and toxic gases that contribute to the live hazard


The term interior finish is:

-Generally applied to the materials used for the exposed face of the walls and ceilings of a building
-Including but not limited to fixed or movable walls and partitions, columns, and ceilings
-Commonly refers to finish on the walls and ceilings and not for coverings


Interior finishes can include such materials as:

Plaster, gypsum wallboard, wood paneling, ceiling tiles, plastic, fiber board, and other wall coverings


Term used in the international community for interior finish?

Interior lining


Building codes usually exclude surface treatments such as paint and wallpaper that are no thicker than?

1/28 inch


During a fire , thin materials tend to behave in a manner similar to

The material to which they are attached because the heat is transmitted to the material beneath the surface material


If there are multiple layers of surface material, however, such as several layers of vinyl, the surface material acts as

An insulator and will contribute to the spread of fire


At one time, floor coverings were not considered to contribute significantly to the development of fires because heat naturally rises. What increased awareness of a need to regulate floor coverings?

The introduction of various deep pile floor Carpets


What are surface burning characteristics of the material?

The degree to which fire can spread over the surface of a material


The speed of flame spread over an interior finish is influenced by what factors?

-The composition of the material
– The shape of the space in which the material is installed
– Whether the finished material is applied to the ceiling or wall


Are an inexact science and cannot precisely duplicate the wide variety of real-life situations in which interior finish materials are found

Standardized fire test methods


When air is in motion, it possesses Kinetic energy. We feel this Kinetic energy as____


E= 1/2mv2

M=mass of a body



When the wind encounters a fixed object, it exerts a force. Wind exerts the following basic forces on a building:

Direct pressure-the impact effect the wind has on surface. This force may be reduced by streamlining the surface encountered.

Aerodynamic drag-when wind encounters an object, it's fluid nature causes it to flow around the object. This exerts a drag effect on the object.

Negative pressure-a suction effect produced on the downwind side of the building resulting in an outward pressure.


When wind exerts force on a building there are 3 secondary effects that may be produced:

Rocking effects- a back and forth effect due to variations in the velocity of the wind.

Vibration-wind passing over a surface such as a roof may cause vibration on the surface depending on the velocity of the wind and the harmonic characteristics of the surface.

Clean off effect-the tendency of wind to dislodge objects from a building.

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The energy possessed by a moving object

Kinetic energy


In designing buildings to withstand the force of wind, the primary effect considered is the:

Force due to direct pressure.

*This force increases with the velocity of the wind and can be evaluated by the basic equation:


P=static pressure
C= .00256 a numerical constant that accounts for the Air mass and simplifying assumptions of building behavior


When speaking about the effects of wind, the actual design pressure used by engineers must be adjusted to account for:

Building height

Surrounding terrain

Specific features relating to the shape of the building

*In addition, designers must consider the combined effects of wind forces and localized conditions, such as closely spaced buildings in an urban area.

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The force resulting from wind is particularly dangerous when it occurs against an ______

Unbraced wall


Fire personnel should also be alert for unbraced walls at:

Demolition sites and at fire damaged buildings where interior structural supports have collapsed or been destroyed.


The vibrational motion of the surface subjects buildings to forces known as _____ that can be very destructive, as history has shown

Seismic forces


Forces developed by earthquakes. Seismic forces are the some of the most complex forces exerted on a building.

Seismic forces


Earthquakes can occur anywhere on earth; however, major earthquakes occur most frequently in parts of the world known as:

Fault zones or zones of high probability

*Zones of high earthquake probability include the Pacific coast of the United States and Canada, Hawaii, Central Utah, and southern Illinois.


The vibrational motion produced by earthquakes can be:

Three dimensional


The force produced in a structural member when it is twisted

Torsional forces


Movements of relatively large amplitude resulting from a small force applied at the natural frequency of a structure

Resonant forces


The magnitude of the forces developed within a building during an earthquake depends on several factors, including the following:

-Magnitude of the vibratory motion

-Type of foundation

-Nature of the soil under the building

-Stiffness of the structure

-Presence of damping mechanisms within the building


Building codes may require that materials with greater surface burning rates be installed

Over a non-combustible material


Why do building codes make use of the flame spread rating of materials?

To establish some control over interior finishes


The classification of interior finishes are used to restrict the materials in vertical exits and exit corridors to those with

Low flame spreads


Materials with a class A interior finish

(0 to 25) rating are required in the vertical exits and most occupancies