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individual differences in patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving


Components of personality

Psychological core
Typical responses
Role-related behavior


Psychological core

“the real you”; your attitudes, beliefs, values, interests, motives, etc.


Typical responses

how we learn to respond to our environment


Role-related behavior

dependent on your perception of your social situation



relatively stable and enduring components of one’s personality

How you typically behave
Ex: Aggressive all the time



temporary behaviors or feelings based on the situation
How you are “right now”

Ex: Aggressive on the football field


Trait approach

traits determine behavior


Situation approach

environment determines behavior (states)


Interactional approach

both traits and the situation determine behavior, and there is often an interactional effect


Phenomenological approach

your perception of traits and situation determine behavior

Subjective experiences and worldview critical


What are the advantages and disadvantages to personality assessment?

When and how should measures be used?

a) Cannot predict athletic success or behaviors
b) Not all tests are valid and reliable
c) Wide margin of error
d) Testers can “fake good”
e) Proctors must be trained and adhere to ethical guidelines
i) Inform athletes of purpose and use
ii) Provide feedback confidentially
iii) Comparisons should be intra-individual (compared to how they usually feel or have scored in the past)


Personality types

classifications of specific personality traits and behaviors


Type A personality

rushed or hurried lifestyle
Highly correlated with cardiovascular disease
“Hurried sickness”
More prone to sympathetic arousal, high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol & triglycerides


Type B personality

Alternative to Type A
“Laid back”, less hurried, lower stress levels


Type D (depression or distressed) personality

i) Tendency to suppress emotional distress

(1) Negative affectivity (worry, gloom, irritability, anxiety)
(2) Social inhibition (withdrawn, lack of self-assurance)

ii) Impacts the course of heart disease
(1) Patients diagnosed with CHD and exhibited Type D behaviors were 4 times more likely to die
(2) About 11% of American adults are on antidepressant medication



the need to make others dependent to generate feelings of self-worth and validation

i) Stress-prone personality
ii) Addictive personality

(1) Process addiction – addicted to codependent behavior
(2) Enabling – helping a loved one carry on an addiction

(a) A need to be needed


Developing Assertiveness

i) Determine you want to change
ii) Healthy assertiveness
(1) Taking responsibility for oneself (no blaming, shaming, or mistreating)
(2) Speaking in a respectful manner, and not tolerating disrespect
(3) “Say what you mean and mean what you say.”
iii) Work on saying “yes” to yourself and “no” to others
iv) Set and maintain boundaries with others in your life
v) Understand and prepare for the negative reactions that will come when you stop being so accommodating
vi) Only you can make yourself happy



i) confidence and satisfaction in oneself; self-respect and self-love
(1) Critical factor in how we respond to stress
(2) Common denominator in stress-prone personalities
(3) Reflected in our thoughts and behaviors
(4) Dynamic and fluctuates throughout time
ii) Self-esteem influences our belief in our ability to cope, thus influences stress


Increasing Self-Esteem

i) Disarm the negative critic
(1) Negative self-talk in a silly voice
ii) Positive affirmations and accolades
(1) Write down a list of your 5 best qualities
iii) Quit shoulding all over yourself!
(1) Learn from past, then live forward
iv) Focus on you, not others
(1) It’s none of your business what others think!
v) You are more than just a _______
(1) Diversify your interests and embrace your many roles
vi) Connect with others
vii) Enjoy your environment
viii) Avoid self-victimization
ix) Reassert yourself and your value