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Flashcards in PP3 - Exam 2 Deck (23)
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1

Self-talk

your inner dialogue; how you communicate with yourself

Positive (motivational)

Instructional

Negative

2

Functions of self-talk

Impacts how you interpret the world
Informs your self-esteem
Impacts our outlook and performance
Mediating role between situation and response
Enhances concentration
Assists in breaking bad habits
Initiating action
Sustaining effort
Acquiring a skill

3

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

Our feelings are a result of our self-talk

Ultimately, we control what we think

Therefore, we have the ability to influence how we feel

4

Irrational Self-Talk

Emotional impact:
Anxiety
Depression
Guilt and shame
Jealousy
Quick to anger
Low tolerance of others
Sense of worthlessne

5

Irrational Ideas

Root of all irrational ideas is believe that the world does it to me
Ex: “He made me mad”, “I always hit traffic”, “Bad things always happen in threes”
Removes control, choice, and will

Types of irrational ideas
Awfulize
Absolutize
Should, must, ought, always, never

6

Refuting Irrational Ideas

1. Write down the facts
2. Write your self-talk about the event
3. Observe your emotional response
4. Dispute and change irrational self-talk
a. “It’s not fair that I can’t find a job.”
b. Ask yourself, “Is there any rational support for this idea?”
Is it true I will not find a job?
Is it rational to expect fairness?
c. What evidence exists for the falseness of this idea?
Life is not fair
Everyone is having trouble find jobs now
Just because I haven’t yet found a job doesn’t mean I won’t
5. Does any evidence exist for the truth of this idea?
a. No, the world is not out to prevent me from getting a job
b. Additionally, I can continue trying
6. What is the worst thing that could happen to me?
a. I will have to move back in with my parents
b. I will have to adjust my lifestyle
c. I might feel more stress and tension
d. I may have to accept failure or change career paths
7. What good things might occur?
a. I may find something else I enjoy
8. Substitute alternative self-talk
a. I will stay persistent and work harder than those who aren’t

7

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

causing something to happen by believing it will come true

"Whether you think you can or you think you can’t, you’re right."

8

Thought Stopping

Recognize the ineffective thought
(Negative, outcome oriented, uncontrollable, not present, not realistic)

STOP the thought

Replace it with an
effective thought

9

Self-confidence

– belief that you can successfully perform a desired behavior

State self-confidence
Trait self-confidence

10

State self-confidence

unstable and dependent on situation

11

Trait self-confidence

part of personality

12

significance of confidence

Arouses positive emotions
Facilitates concentration
Affects goals and game strategy
Increases effort
Psychological momentum
Improves performance

13

Levels of Confidence

Optimal confidence
Lack of confidence
Overconfidence

14

Optimal confidence

–convinced goal achievement is attainable so are motivated to strive for success

15

Lack of confidence

– doubt self and undermine performance

16

Overconfidence

– confidence is greater than abilities

17

Factors that Affect Confidence

Self-expectations

Expectations of others

Self-efficacy

18

Self-expectations

When we expect to be successful performance increases

19

Expectations of others

Coaches’ and teachers’ positive expectations improve performance

20

Self-efficacy

state self-confidence

perception of one’s ability to perform a task successfully

21

Self-regulatory efficacy

one’s ability to overcome obstacles to successful performance

22

6 Sources of self-efficacy

1. Performance accomplishments
2. Vicarious experiences (modeling)
3. Verbal persuasion
4. Imaginal experiences
5. Physiological states
6. Emotional states

23

Increasing Confidence

Acting confidently
Thinking confidently
Using imagery
Focusing on process and performance goals
Preparing
Social support