PP1 - Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

Knes 383 > PP1 - Exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in PP1 - Exam 2 Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...
1

Motivation

the direction and intensity of one’s effort

2

Direction of effort

whether an individual seeks out, approaches, or is attracted to a situation

Ex: Attending class, engaging in an exercise program, signing up for the GRE

3

Intensity of effort

how much effort an individual puts forth in a situation

Ex: How much you focus in class, effort exerted in exercise program, hours spend studying for GRE

4

Motivation influences…

Our choice of activities
Our effort to pursue goals
The intensity of our effort
Our persistence in the face of failure

5

Approaches to Motivation

Trait-centered view
Situation-centered view
Interactional view

6

Trait-centered view (a.k.a. participant-centered view)

motivated behavior is a function of one’s personality

- mostly used in applied sport psychology

7

Situation-centered view

motivated behavior is a function of the situation

8

Interactional view

individual factors and the situation interact to influence motivation

9

Intrinsic motivation

Behavior that comes from within, and will be exhibited even in absence of external reward

Doing the action for the sake of the satisfaction derived from it

10

Extrinsic motivation

Behavior that comes from an outside source – a means to an end – and will not be exhibited without it

11

Amotivated

A lack of motivated behavior resulting from a perceived feeling of helplessness
A feeling of “What’s the point?”

12

3 categories of motivated behavior

Intrinsic motivation
Extrinsic motivation
Amotivated

13

Do extrinsic rewards impact intrinsic motivation?

Informative v. controlling
Best used sparingly, to reward effort and competence, and when earned

14

Competition and intrinsic motivation

Success = increases
Failure = decreases
Performing well = increases

15

Feedback and intrinsic motivation

Positive feedback = increases
Quality over quantity
Relate feedback to effort

16

Coaching style and intrinsic motivation

Autonomous coach = increases
High levels of control = increases

17

Self-Determination Theory

All people are motivated to fulfill 3 basic needs:
The need to feel competent
The need to feel autonomous
The need to feel social connectedness

How we achieve these goals varies

Contributing to these needs enhances helps people increase and maintain motivation

18

2 Major Motivation Sources

Achievement motivation
Competition

19

Achievement motivation

A person’s efforts to master a task, achieve excellence, overcome obstacles, perform better than others, and take pride in exercising talent.

A person’s orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments.

20

Competition

achievement behavior in a social context, where evaluation is key

A disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others

21

Need Achievement Theory

Personality Factors
Situational Factors
Resultant Tendency
Achievement Behavior

22

Personality Factors

Motive to Achieve
Success

Motive to Avoid
Failure

23

Situational Factors

Likelihood of
Success

Incentive value
of success

24

Resultant Tendency

Seek Success

Avoid Failure

25

Achievement Behavior

Seek Achievement
Situations
Accept Challenges

Avoid Achievement
Situations
Avoid Risk

26

High achievers (MAS)

Greater capacity to experience pride

Select challenging tasks

Prefer intermediate risks

Perform better when evaluated

27

Low achievers (MAF)

Greater capacity to experience shame

Avoid challenging tasks

Avoid intermediate risks

Perform worse when evaluated

28

Attribution Theory

Focuses on how people explain their successes or failures
Stability – is the cause of the result permanent or unstable?
Locus of causality – is the cause of the result internal or external?
Locus of control – is there control over the cause of the result?

How we explain successes and failures to ourselves affects our expectations and emotional reactions
 This impacts motivation

29

Applications of Motivation

Use the environment to enhance motivation
People have multiple motives for participation
We often have competing motivations
Motives differ between age groups, gender, culture
Motives change across our lifespan
Leaders have huge impacts on their team’s motivation

30

How Leaders Impact Motivation

Reinforcements
Positive
Frequency of reinforcements/feedback
Reward appropriate behaviors
Use appropriate types of feedback