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Flashcards in PP2 - Exam 2 Deck (20)
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– a blend of physiological and psychological activation, varying in intensity along a continuum The process of inciting into action Can be associated with positive or negative events



– a negative emotional state with feelings of worry, nervousness, and apprehension associated with activation or arousal of the body. A perceived emotional threat Has somatic and cognitive components



temporary emotional state of subjective, consciously perceived feelings of apprehension and tension associated with activation of the autonomic nervous system Cognitive state anxiety Somatic state anxiety


Cognitive state anxiety

the degree to which one has worry or negative thoughts


Somatic state anxiety

the moment-to-moment changes in perceived physiological activation



behavioral disposition to perceive a wide range of nonthreatening circumstances as threatening and to respond with disproportionate state anxiety


Drive Theory

As an individual’s arousal or state anxiety increases, so too does performance Social facilitation theory Dominant response (DR) – most likely way to perform a skill Drive (arousal) DR


Inverted U-Hypothesis

Performance will increase with arousal levels up to some optimal point, whereupon further increases in arousal will cause performance to decline


Catastrophe Model

Increases in arousal, at some point, reach a threshold, whereupon further increases in arousal lead to a rapid decline in performance Contingent on the performer experiencing cognitive anxiety


Reversal Theory

How arousal affects performance is dependent an individual’s interpretation of their arousal Arousal interpreted as pleasant will facilitate performance Arousal interpreted as unpleasant will hurt performance Performers may shift (or reverse) their perspective of arousal at any time For arousal to positively impact performance, arousal must be seen as pleasant


Awareness of Arousal

In order to control your performance, you have to be in control of yourself In order to control yourself, you have to have awareness If you recognize your arousal level does not match your ideal arousal level, you can employ arousal regulation strategies


Techniques to increase awareness

Use stretching to increase body awareness Self assessment/lessons learned Journal Relaxation Body scanning Monitor physiological measurements (biofeedback) Imagery Use your support


Strategies to decrease arousal

Breathing Meditation Systematic relaxation Progressive relaxation (PR) Body scan Imagery Autogenic Training (AT) Biofeedback Rationalization


Strategies to Increase Arousal

Breathing Energizing imagery Energizing verbal cues Transfer of energy Store excess energy Use the environment Music Increase pace Using distractions


Significance of all Arousal Theory

Arousal is multifaceted Physical activation Emotional interpretation Arousal does not always have a negative effect on performance – it can be facilitative or debilitative, depending on the interpretation It is doubtful that the optimal level of arousal is always at the midpoint of the arousal scale “Psyching-up” strategies should be employed with caution because it is difficult to recover from a catastrophe



A process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands or conflicts appraised as taxing or exceeding one’s resources.


Problem-focused coping

Efforts to alter or manage problems causing the stress If you can change the situation, use problem-focused coping


Emotion-focused coping

Regulating emotional responses to the problem if you cannot change the situation, use emotion-focused coping


Practical Implications

Identify optimal combinations of arousal related emotions Recognize the interaction of personal and situational factors on arousal Be aware of “the signs” Tailor coaching/teaching strategies to the individual Increase a sense of confidence and control through coping


Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) Theory