PP2 - Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

Knes 383 > PP2 - Exam 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in PP2 - Exam 3 Deck (37)
Loading flashcards...
1

Teamwork

Requires a commitment to a common goal and a plan to get there

Teamwork, or harmony, is essential between:
Athletes and athletes
Athletes and coaches
Coaches and coaches
Performers and their support system
Any group working together to perform

2

Group

two or more people who interact with, and exert mutual influence on, each other

3

Team

a group which must interact to accomplish shared objectives

4

Key characteristics of teams and groups

Mutual interaction and task interdependence
Collective sense of identity
Distinctive roles
Structured modes of communication
Norms

5

Theories on becoming a team:

Linear
Cyclical
Pendular

6

Linear Theory

Team development follows four stages:
Forming
Storming
Norming
Performing

7

Dealing with group conflict:

Acknowledge it
Identify common ground
See all sides
Develop a plan
Let it go: no baggage

8

Cyclical Theory

Similar to an individual’s life cycle

Emphasis is on psychological preparation for terminal phase

9

Pendular Theory

Development responds to situational demands

10

Types of Roles

Formal roles
Informal roles

11

Formal roles

specific and performance-based; recruited or trained

Ex: Setter, pitcher, goalie, captain, coach

12

Informal roles

evolve from player interactions and group dynamics

Ex: Enforcer, mediator, “team mom”, “go-between”

13

Embracing Roles

Role embracement
Influenced by
-Opportunity to use skills
-Feedback and role recognition
-Role significance
-Autonomy
-Role clarity
--Essential to team performance and effectiveness
--Improves likelihood of role acceptance

14

Barriers to Teamwork

Wide range of personalities
Intense nature of high-level performance
-Personalities
-Stress levels
Competition between group members
Miscommunication

15

Improving Teamwork

Proximity
Social support
Fairness
Distinctiveness from other groups
Similarity within group
Assess team climate
Task interdependence: common goal
-Make a commitment together to work on teamwork

16

Potential Group Drawbacks

Social loafing - reduced effort in groups due to loss in motivation (v. loss in coordination)

Ringelmann’s rope pulling studies
Blindfolded rope pulling
Clapping and shouting


Self-deception

Conformity

Groupthink

De-individualization

17

Cohesion

“the total field of forces which act on members to remain in the group” (Festinger et. al, 1950)


Cohesion is influenced by:
Attractiveness of the group
Means control

18

Types of cohesion

Task cohesion
Social cohesion

19

Task cohesion

how well members work together to achieve common goals

20

Social cohesion

how much members like each other

21

What Impacts Cohesion?

Environmental factors
Personal factors
Leadership factors
Team factors

22

Environmental factors

normative forces holding a group together

Ex: scholarships, contracts, geographical restrictions, payment of fees, size of group

23

Personal factors

individual characteristics of group members

Demographic attributes (ex: gender, ethnicity, ability, aspirations)
Cognitions and motives (ex: anxiety, confidence, locus of control, player satisfaction)
Behavior (ex: adherence, social loafing)

24

Leadership factors

style and behaviors leaders of the group exhibit and their relationships with members

Clear, consistent, unambiguous communication
Perception of compatibility between leader and group members

25

Team factors

commitment to common goal, standards and expectations, clear roles, team stability

Strong desire for group success
Shared experiences
Collective group efficacy

26

Cohesion and Performance

Cohesion is generally positively related to performance
-Task and social cohesion increase performance

83-92% of studies in meta-analyses support relationship

-Task cohesion appears to have a greater impact
-High cohesion appears to produce higher levels of effort
-Interactive and coactive sports are equally impacted

27

Increasing Cohesion

Social cohesion interventions
Task cohesion interventions

28

Social cohesion interventions

Team camp-outs
Ropes and challenge courses
Social get-togethers outside of sport context
Personal growth experiences

29

Task cohesion interventions

Team goal setting
Mission statement development
Team communication
Understanding and conforming to team roles and norms

30

Forms of Communication

Verbal
Non-verbal
Written