Paper 2: Topic 7 Ecology - Food production Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Paper 2: Topic 7 Ecology - Food production Deck (51)
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1

Define food security

Food security is having enough food to feed a population

2

State 6 biological factors which are threatening food security

  1. The increasing birth rate has threatened food security in some countries
  2. Changing diets in developed countries means scarce food
  3. Resources are transported around the world
  4. New pests and pathogens that affect farming environmental changes that affect food production, such as widespread famine occurring in some countries if rains fail
  5. The cost of agricultural inputs
  6. Conflicts that have arisen in some parts of the world which affect the availability of water or food.

3

State 6 possible causes for famine

  1. Droughts
  2. Crop failure
  3. Increasing costs of farming
  4. New pathogens and pets
  5. Armed conflict
  6. Natural disasters

4

State 4 reasons why there are greater demands on our food supplies now compared to the past

  1. Growing Human population (increasing birth rate and longer lifespans)
  2. Changing diets
  3. New pests and pathogens affecting farming
  4. Environmental changes e.g. warmer winters, less rain

5

State 3 methods that Governments are trying to improve food security

  1. Increasing productivity
  2. Preventing over-fishing
  3. Supporting  biotechnology to develop food production methods

6

State the cause of the reduction of fish stocks in the UK

Over-fishing

7

Give 4 reasons why over-fishing is of concern to Governments

  1. It reduces the fish population
  2. So there is less fish to feed the Human population
  3. It also has an effect on food chains
  4. Some species of fish are at risk of becoming extinct e.g. North West Atlantic cod

8

State 4 ways fish stocks can be maintained and conserved

  1. Setting and enforcement of fishing quotas
  2. Specifying minimum and maximum mesh sizes (nets with larger mesh size so the younger fish can escape and continue to grow and reproduce)
  3. Restriction on fishing times e.g. limit the number of days or have closed seasons (when the fish are breeding)
  4. Setting up no-take zones

9

State 3 ways food production can be made more efficient in farming

  1. Restrict the movement of the animals
  2. Keep them in a temperature-controlled environment
  3. Feed the animals high protein diets

10

Explain why restricting animal movement increases food productivity

  • If the animals are caged or not allowed to move freely then they will use less energy for movement
  • This will mean more energy is available to generate biomass
  • So the animals will grow larger and /or produce more milk or eggs etc

11

Explain why keeping animals in a temperature-controlled environment increases food productivity

  • If the animals are kept at an optimal temperature then they will use less energy for maintaining their body temperature
  • This will mean more energy is available to generate biomass
  • So the animals will grow larger and /or produce more milk or eggs etc

12

Explain why feeding animals a high protein diet increases food productivity

  • This will mean more amino acids are available to generate biomass
  • So the animals will grow larger and /or produce more milk or eggs etc

13

Define intensive farming

Agriculture (both arable and pastoral) on a large scale

14

State 5 negative impacts that intensive farming may have on ecosystems

  1. Use of large scale machinery cause air pollution
  2. Use of chemical fertilisers can lead to eutrophication
  3. Use of pesticides can disrupt food chains and decrease biodiversity
  4. Use of antibiotics in animal livestock can lead to antibiotic-resistant bacteria
  5. Use of large scale machinery can lead to removal of hedgerows and destruction of habitats

15

Give 5 differences between organic farming (OF) and intensive farming (IF)

  1. OF uses natural fertilisers e.g. manure vs IF which uses chemical fertilisers
  2. OF uses natural pesticides e.g. ladybirds to eat aphids vs IF which uses chemical pesticides
  3. OF uses crop rotation vs IF which uses large scale monocultures
  4. OF allows fields to lie fallow to replenish nutrients vs IF constantly uses all land and applies more chemical fertilisers each season
  5. OF keeps free range stock vs IF uses cages and barns to restrict the movement of livestock

16

Describe the effect organic and intensive farming have on biodiversity

  • OF conserves and protects biodiversity
  • IF reduces biodiversity

17

Define the term herbicide

a substance that is toxic to plants, used to destroy unwanted vegetation

18

Define the term insecticide

a substance that is toxic to insects

19

Define the term pesticide

a substance used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or to animals

20

Name a food source produced by Biotechnology

Mycoprotein

21

State the organism that is used to produce mycoprotein

Fusarium venenatum

22

State what type of organism is used to produce mycoprotein

Fungus

23

State 4 nutritional benefits of mycoprotein

  1. Good source of protein (for vegetarians)
  2. Good source of fibre
  3. Low in fat
  4. No cholesterol

24

State 3 features of mycoprotein that mean it has been successful as a meat- substitute

  • It has a similar texture to meat
  • It can be produced all year round (unlike meat)
  • It has faster growth than animal protein

25

State 4 reasons why some people are not in favour of using mycoprotein as a meat-substitute

  1. Some people do not like the taste
  2. It is grown on waste materials such as paper and whey which some people object to
  3. It must be purified to prevent contamination (but so does meat!)
  4. Care needs to be taken to prevent microbial contamination (as with meat!)

26

Explain why mycoprotein is not a GM food

  • It is produced naturally by the fungus
  • It has not been genetically engineered or produced

27

State the 3 raw ingredients required to make mycoprotein

  1. Glucose syrup
  2. Oxygen
  3. Ammonia

28

Explain why a source of glucose syrup is needed to produce mycoprotein

It is a source of carbon and energy

29

State the source of the glucose syrup

  • Wheat or maize starch
  • i.e. waste plant material

30

Explain why a source of oxygen is needed to produce mycoprotein

  • Oxygen is required by the fungus for aerobic respiration
  • So that it can release energy for growth

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