Paper 1: Topic 2 Organisation - Non-communicable diseases AND Topic 3 Infection & response - Communicable diseases (IV form) Flashcards Preview

Mrs P's GCSE Biology > Paper 1: Topic 2 Organisation - Non-communicable diseases AND Topic 3 Infection & response - Communicable diseases (IV form) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Paper 1: Topic 2 Organisation - Non-communicable diseases AND Topic 3 Infection & response - Communicable diseases (IV form) Deck (76)
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1

Describe the symptoms of HIV

Flu-like symptoms

2

Which type of tumour is not cancerous?

Benign - as it is not capable of spreading to other rissues

3

Explain what a parasite is

Parasites live on or inside other organisms and cause them harm by damaging their cells

4

How can measles be prevented?

By having a vaccination

Usually given as a Mumps, Measles and Rubella (MMR) vaccine

5

What is a vector?

An organism that spreads a pathogen or parasite to another organism

6

What is a benign tumour?

A mass of cells dividing uncontrollably but the mass of cells stays in one location

It does NOT invade other tissues

7

Describe how measles is spread

An infected person cough or sneezes

This releases viral particles in droplets into the air

An uninfected person inhales the droplets containing the viral particles

8

What is meant by the term metastasis?

The ability for cells to break off a tumour and spread in the blood to a different location

9

What is meant by the term health?

Health is the state of physical and mental wellbeing

10

Does a correlation prove that one variable causes the change in the other variable?

No

Correlations do not prove cause or effect

They ONLY show a pattern between the 2 data sets

11

Describe the problems with using mosquito nets help prevent the spread of malaria

Not everyone has access to mosquito nets

Some people do not want to use them as they find them claustrophobic

12

State 2 examples of causal mechanisms that have been proven scientifically

The effects of diet, smoking and exercise on cardiovascular disease.

Obesity as a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes.

The effect of alcohol on the liver and brain function.

The effect of smoking on lung disease and lung cancer.

The effects of smoking and alcohol on unborn babies.

Carcinogens, including ionising radiation, as risk factors in cancer.

13

Explain what causes the symptoms of gonorrhoea

The bacteria produce toxins that cause harm to the cells

14

Describe the symptoms of gonorrhoea in women

  • unusual green/yellow vaginal discharge
  • pain when urinating
  • painful and tender lower abdomen
  • bleeding between periods

15

Describe 4 general ways in which diseases can be reduced or prevented

Being hygienic

Destroying vectors

Isolating infected individuals

Vaccination

16

Define the term pathogen 

and

Describe 3 ways in which pathogens can be spread

Definition of pathogen  

A micro-organism that causes a disease e.g. bacteria, fungi

Spread of pathogens

  1. Water e.g. cholera
  2. Air e.g. measles, influenza
  3. Direct contact e.g. HIV, athlete's foot

17

Describe how malaria is spread Hint: 5 stages

The female mosquito feed on the blood of an infected person

The female mosquito then feeds on another uninfected human or infected animal

The protists are transferred from the mosquito's saliva into the uninfected person/animal's blood

The protist travels to the liver of the human/animal

The protist reproduces inside the liver cells damaging the liver cells and also in the red blood cells causing them to rupture as well.

18

What are the two types of tumour?

Benign

Malignant

19

State the two categories that diseases can be divided into

Communicable diseases

Non-communicable diseases

20

Why is gonorrhoea harder to treat that salmonella?

The bacteria that causes gonorrhoea has become resistant to penicillin

21

Describe how gonorrhoea can be treated

Take antibiotics usually penicillin

22

Why do bacteria make us feel ill?

They produce waste products which are toxins for humans

These toxins damage cells and tissues

23

Why are cancer survival rates improving?

Increases medical advances

Improved treatments

Being able to diagnose cancers earlier

Increased screening programmes

Improved public awareness of early signs & symptoms

24

How can HIV be spread?

Through unprotected sexual contact

By exchanging bodily fluid e.g. drug users exchanging contaminated blood when sharing needles

HIV can also be passed from mother to the unborn fetus

25

How do viruses make us feel ill?

They cause our cells to rupture

The damage to the cells causes the symptoms that we feel

26

What is a communicable disease?

A disease that can be passed from one an infected human or animal to an uninfected human

27

What is cancer?

The uncontrolled growth and division of cells which form a tumour

28

What are protists?

Single-celled organisms

29

What is a positive correlation?

As one variable increases the other variable increases

30

What causes malaria?

protist (single-celled eukaryotic cell)

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