Paper 1: Topic 3 Infection & response - Fighting disease (IV form) Flashcards Preview

Mrs P's GCSE Biology > Paper 1: Topic 3 Infection & response - Fighting disease (IV form) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Paper 1: Topic 3 Infection & response - Fighting disease (IV form) Deck (66)
Loading flashcards...
1

Describe what a single-blind trial is

The patient doesn’t know if they are being given a drug or a placebo but the doctor knows what the patient takes

2

Explain why not all bacterial disease can be treated with penicillin

Different antibiotics kill different types of bacteria It is important medical professionals prescribe the correct antibiotic

3

Describe what is a placebo

Placebos are tablets/capsules that look identical to the new drug but contain no active ingredient i.e. they are a dummy tablet with no actual drug in them

4

Name a disease that has been eradicated completely due to vaccination

Smallpox

5

Explain why is it important that drugs test & trial results are peer reviewed before they are published?

To prevent false claims

6

Explain 2 ways that the hairs and mucus in the nasal passages act as a non-specific line of defence for the body

The mucus & hairs trap the pathogens

7

Describe the importance of the discovery of antibiotics

The discovery of antibiotics has led to a significant reduction in communicable diseases

8

Explain why viral infections are harder to treat

The virus lives inside host cells Hence it is hidden from the immune system This prevents the lymphocytes and phagocytes from identifying and destroying the virus

9

Describe what the purpose is of a phase 2 of a clinical trial

To determine the effectiveness of the drug

10

Explain what antibodies are

Specialised proteins that bind to antigens on the surface of a pathogen

11

Describe what happens in phase 3 of a clinical trial

This will involve thousands of people It will include people with the disease The volunteers will be randomised The effects of the drug will be compared with established drugs

12

Describe the term ‘peer review’

When scientists who have not been involved in the drug trail in anyway check that the work has been carried out rigorously and the results are valid

13

State 2 disadvantages of vaccinations

Vaccines do not always work - some people do not produce the antibodies and develop immunity to the pathogen Some people experience side effects to the chemicals in the vaccine e.g. swelling, fever

14

State the 3 main stages of a drug test

1 Testing on human cells and tissues 2 Testing on live animals 3 Testing on human volunteers

15

Describe what happens in phase 2 of a clinical trial

The drug is tested on ~200 people This phase will involve the use of a placebo It can involve blind trials and double-blind trials This is used to determine the optimal dose of the drug

16

Describe phagocytosis

White blood cells engulf the pathogen The white blood cell then breaks down the pathogen

17

Explain what is meant by the ‘efficacy of the drug’?

How well the drug works to kill the pathogen or relieve the symptoms

18

What is the optimal dose for any drug?

The dose that has the best effect with minimal (preferably no) side effects

19

Who discovered penicillin?

Alexander Flemming

20

Describe how antitoxins help fight pathogens

Antitoxins counteract the toxins produced by the invading bacteria

21

Explain 2 ways that the skin acts as a non-specific line of defence for the body

The skin forms a barrier to prevent the entry of pathogens The skin secretes antimicrobial chemicals which kill pathogens

22

Describe what a double-blind trial is

Some patients are given a placebo and some get the new drug but neither the patient or the doctor knows what the patient takes until the trial is complete

23

Give 2 examples of medicinal drugs that have been obtained from plants. For each example state where it has been discovered

Aspirin - found in willow Digitalis - found in foxgloves

24

Explain what is meant by the ‘toxicity of the drug’?

Whether or not the drugs might cause harm to cells and tissues of the patient

25

Explain where antibiotics are obtained from

Many antibiotics are produced by moulds e.g. Penicillin

26

Why are dead or inactive pathogens used in vaccination?

If the actual pathogen was injected it would cause the disease By injecting dead or inactive pathogens the antigens are still present and therefore stimulate the B-lymphocytes to produce antibodies The dead or inactive pathogens are harmless

27

Describe what the purpose is of a phase 1 of a clinical trial

To determine the safety and effectiveness of the drug To make sure the drug does not have any harmful side-effects

28

Explain how society can help reduce the development of resistant strains of bacteria

Medical professionals must avoid over-prescribing antibiotics Patients must ensure they complete the antibiotic course (take all the tablets even if they feel better before they have finished them) Patients must not expect to be prescribed antibiotics for all sore throats, fevers etc - if they have a viral infection antibiotics will be of NO use

29

State the body system that destroys pathogen

Immune system

30

Describe what the purpose is of a phase 3 of a clinical trial

To determine the effectiveness of the drug

Decks in Mrs P's GCSE Biology Class (26):