Paper 2: Topic 6 Inheritance, variation & evolution - Classification of living organisms Flashcards Preview

Mrs P's GCSE Biology > Paper 2: Topic 6 Inheritance, variation & evolution - Classification of living organisms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Paper 2: Topic 6 Inheritance, variation & evolution - Classification of living organisms Deck (20)
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1

Define the term ‘classification’

The process of placing living organisms into groups

2

Name the two scientists who developed classification systems

  1. Carl Linneaus
  2. Carl Woese

3

How did Linnaeus categorise living organisms

Traditionally living things have been classified into groups depending on their structure and characteristics

4

Place these groups into the correct order staring with the largest group Class Order Kingdom Species Phylum Genus Family

Kingdom → Phylum → Class → Order → Family → Genus →  Species

 

Hint: try remembering the saying “Keep Penis Clean Or Forget Good Sex” – no offence meant here!

5

Give 2 reasons why some organisms have been reclassified in recent years

  1. Evidence of internal structures has become more developed due to improvements in microscopes
  2. Understanding of biochemical processes  has progressed
  • This has caused new models of classification to be proposed.

6

Explain how Carl Woese’s classification differs from Carl Linnaeus’s system

  • Woese developed a 3 domain system
  • This includes 3 groups which are each larger than Kingdom

7

Name the 3 domains used in Woese’s classification system

  1. Archaea
  2. Bacteria
  3. Eukaryota

8

Describe the type of organisms that are placed in the archaea domain

  • Simple prokaryotic bacteria
  • Generally found in extreme habitats e.g. hot springs, salt lakes

9

Describe the type of organisms that are placed in the bacteria domain

  • True bacteria
  • They look similar to archaea but carry out different biochemical reactions
  • E.g. E. coli, Staphylococcus

10

Describe the type of organisms that are placed in the eukaryota domain

  • Broad range of organisms
  • Includes animals, plants, fungi and protists

11

What is the term used to describe the naming system used in classification

Binomial name

12

What term terms make up the binomial name of any organism

  • Genus followed by species
  • E.g. Humans are correctly named as Homo sapiens
  • Homo = Genus
  • sapiens = species

13

How should a Scientist write the Latin Binomial name?

The genus must always have a capital letter

The species always begins with a lower case letter

Both genus and species should be typed in italics or underlined if hand written

14

State 4 advantages of using a Latin binomial name when talking about an organism

  1. The binomial name is used worldwide
  2. It overcomes difficulties with different Scientists using different languages
  3. It avoids some organisms being called different names in different countries
  4. It therefore makes sharing of information and data between Scientists easier as they know they are all referring to the same organism

15

Describe how evolutionary relationships can be shown

By the use of evolutionary trees

16

17

Where on an evolutionary tree is the most common ancestor found?

At the base of the evolutionary tree

18

Where on an evolutionary tree is the most recent species found?

At the tip of the longest branch = Bonobos

19

How are organisms that are closely related to each other shown on an evolutionary tree?

They are shown coming off one branch of the tree The closer the branching the more closely related they are

20

Which arrow shows speciation?

The arrow at the branching point

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