Paper 1: Topic 4 Bioenergetics - Respiration (LV) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Paper 1: Topic 4 Bioenergetics - Respiration (LV) Deck (34)
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1

Describe respiration

An exothermic reaction which is occurring continually inside all living cells (all plant and animal cells)

2

What is the difference between breathing and respiration?

  • Breathing is the process of ventilation i.e. inhalation and exhalation
  • Breathing occurs in the lungs and involves the ribcage and the diaphragm

 

  • Respiration is a series of chemical reactions that are taking place inside every living cell

3

What is the purpose of respiration?

To break down glucose to enable energy to be released for other chemical reactions inside the cell

To produce ATP

 

REMEMBER: energy can’t be produced/made/created

4

Define the term exothermic

A chemical reaction which transfers energy into the environment in the form of heat

5

State 3 uses of the energy released by respiration

1. To build larger molecules from smaller molecules e.g. build proteins from amino acids, to build complex carbohydrates from simple sugars, to build lipids from fatty acids and glycerol

2. To enable muscles to contract and bring about movement

3. To maintain body temperature in birds and mammals

6

Write the word equation for aerobic respiration

Glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + ATP

 

 

Hint: do not write energy as a product as energy can't be made or created

7

Give 5 examples of reactions involved in metabolism

1. Respiration

2. Conversion of glucose to starch, glycogen or cellulose

3. Production of amino acids from glucose and nitrate ions in plant cells to synthesise new proteins

4. Breakdown of excess proteins to form urea for excretion

5. Production of lipids from 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol

8

What happens to the energy transferred in respiration?

It is used by the organism for the continual enzyme controlled processes of metabolism that synthesise new molecules

9

State the two different types of respiration

Aerobic

Anaerobic

10

Describe aerobic respiration

The complete breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP, carbon dioxide and water

 

11

State the useful product of aerobic respiration

ATP

12

State the waste products of aerobic respiration

Water and carbon dioxide

13

Describe anaerobic respiration in human muscles

The incomplete breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen to produce ATP and lactic acid

14

State the useful product of anaerobic respiration in muscles

ATP

15

State the waste products of anaerobic respiration in muscles

Lactic acid

16

Describe anaerobic respiration in plant and yeast cells

The incomplete breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen to produce ATP, ethanol and carbon dioxide

17

State the useful product of aerobic respiration

ATP

18

State the waste products of aerobic respiration

Carbon dioxide and water

19

Which form of respiration transfers the most energy?

Aerobic respiration

20

What is the term used to describe anaerobic respiration in yeast cells?

Alcoholic fermentation

21

What is the economic importance of fermentation?

Hint: think of 2 useful products that can be made from fermentation

It is used in the manufacturing of bread and alcoholic drinks (e.g. beer, wine)

22

Describe 5 changes that occur in the body during exercise

  1. Increased heart rate
  2. Increased breathing rate
  3. Increased depth of breathing
  4. Vasodilation of the arterioles at the skin’s surface
  5. Vasconstriction of the arterioles to the digestive system

23

Explain the reasons for the changes observed in the body during exercise

To deliver more oxygen to respiring muscle cells

To deliver more glucose to respiring muscle cells

To remove more heat from respiring muscle cells

To remove more lactic acids from contracting muscle cells

To remove more carbon dioxide from respiring muscle cells

 

Hint you must remember to put the word MORE in to each sentence you write in this answer

24

Describe and explain what happens to the rate of respiration in muscle cells during exercise

Description

  • Rate of respiration increases

 

Explanation:

  • This causes more energy to be transferred to the environment, more lactic acid to be produced and more carbon dioxide to be produced
  • The muscle cells will also have a higher oxygen demand and a higher glucose demand

25

Describe what happens in muscles as a consequence of long periods of vigorous exercise

Lactic acid accumulates

An oxygen debt occurs

26

Explain the term oxygen debt

The amount of EXTRA oxygen the body requires after exercise to react with the accumulated lactic acid and oxidise it (break it down) to glucose in the liver

27

Explain what happens to the lactic acid produced as a result of anaerobic respiration

  • Blood flowing through the muscles transports lactic acid to the liver
  • The liver converts some of the lactic acid back into glucose (for respiration)
  • Some of the lactic acid is broken down to carbon dioxide and water

28

Describe how you can test for the producion of carbon dioxide

Test: Bubble the gas through limewater

Negative result: the solution will remain colourless and transparent

Positive result: the solution will turn a milky white colour

29

Write the chemical equation for aerobic respiration

 

Hint: remember to balance your equation

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

30

Write the word equation for anaerobic respiration in skeletal muscles

Glucose → lactic acid + ATP

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