Paper 2: Topic 7 Ecology - Adaptations, interdependence & competition Flashcards Preview

Mrs P's GCSE Biology > Paper 2: Topic 7 Ecology - Adaptations, interdependence & competition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Paper 2: Topic 7 Ecology - Adaptations, interdependence & competition Deck (32)
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Define the term ecology

The study of living organisms and their habitats


Define the term habitat

The place where an organism lives


Define the term population

The number of all the individuals of one species living in a defined habitat


Define the term community

All the populations of different species living in a defined habitat


Define the term ecosystem

An ecosystem is the interaction of a community of living organisms (biotic) with the non-living (abiotic) parts of their environment


Define the term abiotic factor

A non-living factor within the environment


Define the term biotic factor

A living factor within the environment


Give 4 examples of biotic factors

  1. Arrival of new predators
  2. Availability of prey
  3. Arrival of new pathogens
  4. Competition with another species


Hint: think “3Ps


Give 7 examples of abiotic factors that affect plants

  1. pH of the soil
  2. temperature
  3. Availability of water
  4. Availability of mineral ions
  5. Availability of carbon dioxide
  6. Light intensity and duration
  7. Wind intensity and direction


Give 3 examples of abiotic factors that affect animals

  1. Availability of oxygen
  2. Temperature
  3. Availability of nutrients


State 3 resources that plants compete against each for

  1. Light
  2. Water
  3. Space


State 4 resources that animals compete against each other for

  1. Mate
  2. Territory
  3. Food
  4. Water


Define the term intra-species competition

Competition for a resource between two members of the same species


Define the term inter-species competition

Competition for a resource between two members of the different species


If one species is removed from a community it can affect the whole community. State the term that means this.

This is called interdependence


Interdependence is a term used to describe the reliance of one species on a different species for resources.

Give 5 resources they may be interdependent for.

  1. Food
  2. Shelter
  3. Pollination
  4. Seed dispersal
  5. Shelter


If one organism in a food web decreased in number what effects may this have on other organisms in the food web

  • Numbers of the organism that usually feeds on the decreased organism will decrease (as they have less prey)
  • Numbers of organisms that are usually eaten by the decreased organisms will increase (as they have less predators)


Give 2 examples of communities that have very stable population sizes

  1. Tropical rainforest
  2. Ancient oak woodland


State the term used to describe a community that remains relatively constant

Stable community


Define a stable community

A stable community is one where all the species and environmental factors are in balance so that population sizes remain fairly constant.


Define the term adaptation

A feature or characteristic that allows an organism to survive in specific environmental conditions


State the 3 categories that can be used to classify adaptations

  1. Structural adaptations
  2. Behavioural adaptations
  3. Functional adaptations


Define the term structural adaptation

A feature of an organisms body such as shape or colour that makes it suited to survive in its environment


State and explain 3 examples of structural adaptations in animals

Arctic fox has white fur to camouflage it against the snow - to reduce been seen by predators

Whales have thick layers of fat (blubber) under their skin – to retain heat

Camels – have large fat stores in their hump – to fat can be metabolised to release water when water is scarce


State and explain 2 examples of structural adaptations in plants

Marram grass rolls its leaves – to reduce the surface area to volume ratio and prevent water loss

Cacti have wide-spreading, shallow roots – to capture any small amount of rainfall that occurs


Define the term behavioural adaptation

When an organism of changes its behaviour to suit give it an advantage in surviving in the environment


State and explain 2 examples of behavioural adaptations in animals

Swallows migrate to countries with warmer climates to over-winter and avoid the cold conditions

Hedehogs hibernate over winter – to avoid the cold climates and periods where food becomes more scarce


Define the term functional adaptation

  • An feature inside the cells and tissues of an organism that is related to a specific process
  • This feature usually increases the efficiency of the organisms metabolism or its ability to reproduce


State and explain 2 examples of functional adaptations in animals

Desert rat conserves water by producing very little sweat and only producing small volumes of concentrated urine

Brown bears lower their metabolic rate when they hibernate –to reduce the energy they need and ensure fat reserves last longer during hibernation


Define the term extremophile

Organisms that live in environments that are very extreme, such as at high temperature, pressure, or salt concentration

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