Paper 1: Topic 2 Organisation - Heart, blood vessels & blood (IV form) Flashcards Preview

Mrs P's GCSE Biology > Paper 1: Topic 2 Organisation - Heart, blood vessels & blood (IV form) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Paper 1: Topic 2 Organisation - Heart, blood vessels & blood (IV form) Deck (140)
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What are the 4 advantages of using a single blood component rather than whole blood?

  1. More patients can be treated from each single pint of donated blood
  2. The dose of the blood component can be change so that it is optimal for each specific patient
  3. It is more cost effective
  4. The process is more efficient
  5. There is an abundant supply
  6. There is no risk of rejection
  7. There is no risk of infection e.g. HIV
  8. It has a longer shelf-life than whole blood


Why are scientists trying to develop artificial blood products?

Whole blood has a short shelf-life i.e. it can't be stored for very long


Why does the left ventricle have the thickest wall of all the 4 chambers in the heart?

The LV has to contract to generate the largest force to move the blood from the LV to all over the body i.e. they have to move the blood over the largest distance and overcome the greatest resistance (friction)


What is the purpose/function of the valves inside veins?

To prevent the back flow of blood and ensure blood only flows in one direction

The valves also prevent blood from pooling (collecting) in the lower limbs


What is the role/function of the plasma?

It is the liquid component of the blood that the cells are suspended in and chemicals are carried in


How are the lungs adapted for gaseous exchange?

They have many alveoli

The alveoli have walls which are one cell thick

The alveoli are covered in a rich blood supply (many capillaries)

The lining of the alveoli is moist (to dissolve the gases)


Give 2 advantages of biological heart valves

No medication needs to be taken

They are fully effective


Which type of blood vessels have tiny gaps (pores) in their walls?

Only capillaries


What are the 3 different roles/functions of white blood cells?

To produce antibodies

To produce antitoxins

To carry out phagocytosis (engulf bacteria or toxins and break them down into harmless products)


What is a double circulatory system?

A system where the blood passes through the heart twice per full circuit around the body.


What is the function of the left ventricle?

Receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium

Contracts to generate a high force to move the oxygenated blood to the rest of the body via the aorta

The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood around the rest of the body.


Give 2 SOCIAL arguments for the development of artificial hearts

  1. Gains time for the patient
  2. No waiting time


Why does the right ventricle have thicker walls than the atria?

The RV has to contract to generate a larger force to move the blood from the RV to the lungs i.e. they have to move the blood over a larger distance and overcome a larger resistance (friction)


Give 2 disadvantages of biological heart valves

They usually need replacing after 15 years

There are ethical issues for some people e.g. is it right to use tissue from animals


Describe the chemical reaction that happens in the red blood cell in the lungs

haemoglobin binds with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin haemoglobin + oxygen = oxyhaemoglobin


What is the role/function of the pulmonary artery?

Carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart to the lungs

The blood has low oxygen and high carbon dioxide


How do cells become specialised?

The cells differentiate

This means they change in different ways:-

  1. they change their shape e.g. sperm cell becomes streamlined and develops a flagellum (tail)
  2. they change their cell contents e.g. produce specific proteins e.g. haemogobin in a RBC, mucus in a goblet cell
  3. they change the number of certain cell organelles to become suited for a specific function e.g. pallisade mesophyll cells increase thier number fo chloroplasts


What are blood components?

These are parts of blood that have been separated from donated blood e.g. red blood cells platelets plasma


What is the function of glandular tissue?

To produce and secrete chemicals such as enzymes and hormones


What happens to the heart valve when it becomes faulty?

The valve may not open fully (as they can become stiff)

The valve may develop a leak (which then allows blood to flow in both directions)


What are the 4 main components of blood?


Red blood cells

White blood cells



Define the term 'organ system'

A group of organs working together to carry out specific functions


What is the function of the vena cava?

Carries deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body back to the right atrium

The blood has low oxygen and high carbon dioxide


What are the 3 negatives/disadvantages of having a stent fitted?

There can be complications during surgery e.g. having a heart attack, reacting to the anaesthetic

There is a risk of a blood clot forming near the stent - this is called a thrombosis

If a thrombosis forms there is a risk of a stroke or heart attack or pulmonary embolism


What are blood products?

They are components (parts) of blood that are obtained from donated blood e.g. red blood cells, plasma, platelets


How does coronary heart disease occur? Hint: 5 steps

Layers of fatty material build up INSIDE the coronary artery wall

This narrows the lumen of the coronary artery

This reduces the blood flow through the coronary srtery

This reduces the amount of oxygen & glucose delivered to the cardiac muscle cells that make up the heart walls

This can cause a heart attack


Give an example of a cardiovascular disease

Coronary heart disease


Myocardial infarction (heart attack)


What is the importance of blood clotting? Hint: 3 purposes

To seal and close a wound

To prevent blood loss

To prevent the entry of micro-organisms


Which type of blood vessels have smooth muscle and elastic fibres in their walls?

ONLY arteries and veins


Different blood components have different uses. What is the use of platelets?

To treat or prevent bleeding in patients with a low platelet count

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