Lecture 7: Islamic Science Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7: Islamic Science Deck (12)
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1

Origin of Science and Philosophy up to this point?

Philosophy = foot notes to Plato
Science = foot notes to Aristotle

2

Why would religion want to know NS?

You wouldn't listen to anything a moon landing debunker says

3

Abrahamic Monotheism

One true god revealed himself to Abraham, and we should worship and praise God. Abraham is an exemplar of how to do this.

Christianity
Judaism
Islam

Key difference:
Was Jesus a Prophet, Son of God, Messiah?

Irreconcilable differences despite core beliefs
->show how, why region divided
->show how important religion was
->importance of debate, no blind faith, very intellectual religions that try and get it right (Arist's THE TOPICS)

4

Jewish Beliefs?

Earliest devotees to Abrahamic

The chosen people descended from Abraham

-Holy books produced by Moses, Joshua...
->messengers of god
God asked Abraham to kill his son Isaac
->Abraham does it, though God saves him

A messiah will come, and bring peace to the people

Jesus is a Jewish man, raised in Roman control
->preached around Jerusalem
->HE IS THE PROPHESIZED MESSIAH
->not a son of god

5

Muslim Beliefs?

"One who submits to god"
Jesus is Messiah and Prophet of God
->had divine revelation
->Rejects divinity of Jesus
Muslims are followers of prophet Muhammad

Prophet Muhammad ~570AD
->Nestorian Christianity dominates Arabian peninsular
->humanity of Christianity > divinity
->he's the final prophet, the Seal on prophet lineage

Hadith = stories of Muhammad's life
Originally, Quran is Memorised
->b/c/ tribal, move arounds

6

Christian Beliefs?

Becomes official religion
->spread of Christianity well bring about the Messianic age of peace

But who correctly follows him?
->many traditions by region
->theological disputes

Gospel is story of his life, Bible is literal words of God. (Like Qu'ran and Hadith)

7

Islamic Translation Movement

In golden age, Abassids found House of Wisdom in Baghdad

Why?
->religious motivation
->practical value
Who?
->all types, specialists
How?
->paper, Baghdad paper mill
->$$$$ from Caliphs (esp. Abbasids)
When?
->6th C, picks up in 8th C, total 500 years

8

Why would Muslims value Astronomy?

Used like planning like others
->agriculture...

Islam!
->Lunar calendar, not Solar
->pray 5x facing Mecca

Half of our stars are Arabic! (e.g. Vega, Betlejuice)
Azimuth, Zenith....

9

What did the Muslim world contribute to Algebra?

Inventing balancing of equations!
->and readily used it in the world

Algebra was possible because:
->base 10 decimal notation!
->zero place holder

"Hindu-Arabic" or Arabic numerals still used today

10

Contributions to Optics?

Extramission
->Ptolemy, Euclid
->Plato's Timaeus, fire in the eyes
Intromission
->Aristotle's colour waves
->Alhazen's light rays bounce, enter eyes@right angle

Alhazen is an OG, who combined Geometric explanations like Euclid with Aristotle's intromission.
->light is a thing
->treating as such lets you study it

11

Alchemy!

Science of substantial change
->chinea, metalworking
Produce, Categorise, Treat substances
->mostly purification, transformation

Tools!
-> beakers, reaction vessels
"alcohol, alkaline"

Theoretical Frameworks!

Jabir ibn Hayyan
->Mercury-Sulphur theory, 4+2 elements
->Sulphur, Mercury vapours bubble through earth
->ratio they combine in gives all metals
->do not confuse with Mercury, Sulfur elements

Gives idea transformation of metals
->and purification, and recombinationQ

12

Occasionalist Theology?

God's continued intervention is all that drives this world. There are no hidden causes, only God's will, so stop trying to understand the world.