Lecture 2: Plato & Pythagoreans Flashcards Preview

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1

Periods of Ancient Greece? What marks their start and end?

Pre Classical Antiquity (1300 - 800 BC)
->literate "Linear A" (which we don't know)
->warrior elite in "PALATIAL CENTERS"
->cuneiforms
->everyone mysteriously loses power, collapses
->BRONZE AGE COLLAPSE
->LOSS OF LINEAR B
Greek Dark Ages (1100 - 800), they literally go dark.

Archaic Greece (800 - 499 BC)
->Land crisis: e.g. Sparta enslaving neighbours -> farm
->Greek ruled by "Draco", "Draconian Measures"
->kept people fed but wrecked lower class
->~600 a tyrant set up, but Sparta ousted and installed their own puppet
->BIRTH OF DEMOCRACY with revolution
->defends Spartan invasion on inspiration alone

Classical Greece (5, 4th C BC)
->birth of Greek Philosophy
->Aristotle
->focus on teaching, writing
->but most records are lost, generally no or contradictory knowledge

2

The Milesian School: What/Who?

In Miletus
->many exports, trading of goods AND ideas
->influenced by Hindu thought (no evidence copied)
->idea to WRITE THINGS

***Thales is the first time we can attribute an idea to a person***

Three material monists:
1) Thales: Father of science, how things appear vs are
2) Anaximander: First to write, has physical model
3) Anaximenes

3

Anaximander: All is _____ ? Explain.

ALL IS ONE
->everything comes from conflict
->we come from opposition
->when things die, they recombine
->all made of substance "Oneness"
->all come from and return to "Apeiron"
->"infinite" or "limitless"
->perturbing it creates things
->many worlds

Why is this good? It reflects mythology! How all Titans rose from the cosmos.

4

Anaximander and Cosmology?

FIRST MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF WORLD
->elegantly modeled cosmos obeying rules
->good ordered mathematical explanations
->first to join math and science

-Earth is cylinder floating in centre of the infinite
->unsupported, remains fixed because "indifference"
->really radical at time, Earth floats free, doesn't need to rest on something
-Flat top is where we all live
-Geocentric model
->everything measured in Re (9, 18, 27 R's)
-Earth surrounded by hollow rings filled with fire
-Sun, Moon, and stars are transparent rings/hoops/vents through which we can see the fire
->phases of moon, and solar/lunar eclipses are vents closing up

5

Anaximenes: All is ____? Model of world?

All is air. (Air is the middle ground).
->can thicken clouds -> rain -> mud
->can rarified to fire

Earth is leaf on a gust of air
->at some point Earth let out a gust, forming stars

6

What is a monist, and which did we study?

(Material) monists believe all the world is made of a single material.

The Milesian School:
->Thales (water)
->Anaximander (oneness, Aperion)
->Anaximenes. (air)

Material monists who weren't Milesian:
->Heraclitus of Ephesus (fire)
->Parmenides of Elea (everything just is)

7

What is a Pluralist, and which did we study?

Believes world is made of multiple elements together. We saw some Pre Socratic pluralists:
->Empedocles (the 4)
->Democritus (atoms and void)

8

Heraclitus: All is ____? Explain beliefs.

All is fire
->everything flowing, changing
->"can't step in same river twice"
->Reality is change
->but change isn't just random

LOGOS ("the law")
->"nature loves to hide"
->unseen principles, to understand use THE SENSES
->but eyes are useless to barbarians
->so EYES+EARS+REASON

9

Parmenides of Elea beliefs?

CHANGE IS AN IMPOSSIBLE ILLUSION
->senses unreliable, only use reason

Being/non being question
->how does being come from non-being?
->can't get something from nothing

So Existence is eternal
->can't come from nothing so everything always was
->true change impossible, everything always existed

10

Empedocles' Beliefs

Four elements, resolves BEING VS NONBEING
->the 4 are permanent, eternally exist
->their combination/deconstruction shows us change
"Love and Strife" "Affinity and repulsion"
->forces the 4 to join and separate
->but strife stronger, one day all will separate
->END OF THE WORLD, everything dissolves to 4

11

Democritus' Beliefs

Atomism
->atoms (beings) and void (non-beings)

But his atoms were different:
->atoms indivisible and all alike
->volumeless
->no rules of recombination

But problematic:
->Aristotle: speed-medium, so if void teleportation?
->Aristotle: infinite volumeless atoms = volume?
->AMORALITY - everything is just the exact same atoms, there are no gods, mythology, natural forces

12

As Athens became a central power, what FOUR THEMES permeated?

1. Naturalistic explanation of formation of Earth
2. Methodology - Logic & Reason, or Senses? All?
3. Change, Permanence? How exist, being/nonbeing?
4. Appearance vs Reality

13

What do we know of Socrates? What were his defining traits? To what end?

Certain: Intimidating intellect and incredibly ugly.

Mythological story:
->was amazing soldier impervious to cold
->someone asks Oracle for smartest man
->has humility, tries to prove Oracle wrong
->talks to all philosophers, but shows holes in logic
->WISEST FOR ASSUMING HE KNEW NOTHING

Two tenants:
1) You know nothing, only guessing.
2) Conviction in ideas, stand by your ideas

Formed a posse who would go around criticising everyone who walked past. THUG MOB.

Arrested for:
1) Corrupting youth
2) Disrespecting gods

Admitted to it, death by poison
->Refused an apology deal
->Refused to escape via bribed guards

A "NATURAL PHILOSOPHER"
->usually deals with ordered, harmonious society
->gives Philosophical Answers
->understand origin of life = understand how to live
->Understanding forms, studying nature tell us what a good society is
->knowing imperfections = knowing the fix
->wasn't Christian but influenced them

14

What do we know of Plato? Values?

Called the "best student of Socrates"
->all the conviction, none of the humility
JUSTICE
->what is the ideal society?
Wrote in dialogue

15

Plato's explanation of the world?

THEORY OF THE FORMS

Perfect examples exist of everything
->non-physical, eternal, and perfect
->we only see bad copies
->"Form of X" is very real, not an idea

REALM OF THE FORMS
->where all forms exist
->we once came from there -> RECOLLECTION
-> through REASON and RECOLLECTION, understand the nature of the form
->e.g. we can all see perfect circle

EDUCATION IS COAXING OUT KNOWLEDGE YOU ALREADY HAD

****Explains how things can humans can all be different but the same ***