Flashcards in Lecture 2: Plato & Pythagoreans Deck (15)
Periods of Ancient Greece? What marks their start and end?
Pre Classical Antiquity (1300 - 800 BC)
->literate "Linear A" (which we don't know)
->warrior elite in "PALATIAL CENTERS"
->everyone mysteriously loses power, collapses
->BRONZE AGE COLLAPSE
->LOSS OF LINEAR B
Greek Dark Ages (1100 - 800), they literally go dark.
Archaic Greece (800 - 499 BC)
->Land crisis: e.g. Sparta enslaving neighbours -> farm
->Greek ruled by "Draco", "Draconian Measures"
->kept people fed but wrecked lower class
->~600 a tyrant set up, but Sparta ousted and installed their own puppet
->BIRTH OF DEMOCRACY with revolution
->defends Spartan invasion on inspiration alone
Classical Greece (5, 4th C BC)
->birth of Greek Philosophy
->focus on teaching, writing
->but most records are lost, generally no or contradictory knowledge
The Milesian School: What/Who?
->many exports, trading of goods AND ideas
->influenced by Hindu thought (no evidence copied)
->idea to WRITE THINGS
***Thales is the first time we can attribute an idea to a person***
Three material monists:
1) Thales: Father of science, how things appear vs are
2) Anaximander: First to write, has physical model
Anaximander: All is _____ ? Explain.
ALL IS ONE
->everything comes from conflict
->we come from opposition
->when things die, they recombine
->all made of substance "Oneness"
->all come from and return to "Apeiron"
->"infinite" or "limitless"
->perturbing it creates things
Why is this good? It reflects mythology! How all Titans rose from the cosmos.
Anaximander and Cosmology?
FIRST MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF WORLD
->elegantly modeled cosmos obeying rules
->good ordered mathematical explanations
->first to join math and science
-Earth is cylinder floating in centre of the infinite
->unsupported, remains fixed because "indifference"
->really radical at time, Earth floats free, doesn't need to rest on something
-Flat top is where we all live
->everything measured in Re (9, 18, 27 R's)
-Earth surrounded by hollow rings filled with fire
-Sun, Moon, and stars are transparent rings/hoops/vents through which we can see the fire
->phases of moon, and solar/lunar eclipses are vents closing up
Anaximenes: All is ____? Model of world?
All is air. (Air is the middle ground).
->can thicken clouds -> rain -> mud
->can rarified to fire
Earth is leaf on a gust of air
->at some point Earth let out a gust, forming stars
What is a monist, and which did we study?
(Material) monists believe all the world is made of a single material.
The Milesian School:
->Anaximander (oneness, Aperion)
Material monists who weren't Milesian:
->Heraclitus of Ephesus (fire)
->Parmenides of Elea (everything just is)
What is a Pluralist, and which did we study?
Believes world is made of multiple elements together. We saw some Pre Socratic pluralists:
->Empedocles (the 4)
->Democritus (atoms and void)
Heraclitus: All is ____? Explain beliefs.
All is fire
->everything flowing, changing
->"can't step in same river twice"
->Reality is change
->but change isn't just random
LOGOS ("the law")
->"nature loves to hide"
->unseen principles, to understand use THE SENSES
->but eyes are useless to barbarians
Parmenides of Elea beliefs?
CHANGE IS AN IMPOSSIBLE ILLUSION
->senses unreliable, only use reason
Being/non being question
->how does being come from non-being?
->can't get something from nothing
So Existence is eternal
->can't come from nothing so everything always was
->true change impossible, everything always existed
Four elements, resolves BEING VS NONBEING
->the 4 are permanent, eternally exist
->their combination/deconstruction shows us change
"Love and Strife" "Affinity and repulsion"
->forces the 4 to join and separate
->but strife stronger, one day all will separate
->END OF THE WORLD, everything dissolves to 4
->atoms (beings) and void (non-beings)
But his atoms were different:
->atoms indivisible and all alike
->no rules of recombination
->Aristotle: speed-medium, so if void teleportation?
->Aristotle: infinite volumeless atoms = volume?
->AMORALITY - everything is just the exact same atoms, there are no gods, mythology, natural forces
As Athens became a central power, what FOUR THEMES permeated?
1. Naturalistic explanation of formation of Earth
2. Methodology - Logic & Reason, or Senses? All?
3. Change, Permanence? How exist, being/nonbeing?
4. Appearance vs Reality
What do we know of Socrates? What were his defining traits? To what end?
Certain: Intimidating intellect and incredibly ugly.
->was amazing soldier impervious to cold
->someone asks Oracle for smartest man
->has humility, tries to prove Oracle wrong
->talks to all philosophers, but shows holes in logic
->WISEST FOR ASSUMING HE KNEW NOTHING
1) You know nothing, only guessing.
2) Conviction in ideas, stand by your ideas
Formed a posse who would go around criticising everyone who walked past. THUG MOB.
1) Corrupting youth
2) Disrespecting gods
Admitted to it, death by poison
->Refused an apology deal
->Refused to escape via bribed guards
A "NATURAL PHILOSOPHER"
->usually deals with ordered, harmonious society
->gives Philosophical Answers
->understand origin of life = understand how to live
->Understanding forms, studying nature tell us what a good society is
->knowing imperfections = knowing the fix
->wasn't Christian but influenced them
What do we know of Plato? Values?
Called the "best student of Socrates"
->all the conviction, none of the humility
->what is the ideal society?
Wrote in dialogue