Lecture 5: Alex the Great, Euclid, Archimedes Flashcards Preview

Scientific Revolutions I > Lecture 5: Alex the Great, Euclid, Archimedes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 5: Alex the Great, Euclid, Archimedes Deck (5)
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1

Alexander the Great's background?

Actually Macedonian
->father, Philip I of Macedon, was King
->tutored by Aristotle until 16, when he became general
->very big deal, because Aristotle "knows everything"
Ascends after guards assassinate father (King Philip)
->People thought they could break away
Alex invades Greece proper
->Peloponnesian peninsula submits
->Conquers from Greece & Balkans to India's border

End result is Greek culture is in and draws from a vast swathe of land.

2

Effects of Alex's Imperialistic Invasion?

1) Destabilises Athens as centre of power
->Just another city state
->no longer where all phils talked
->pulls on all regions theories

2) Brings Greek philosophy to many people
->e.g. Egypt became like Greece
->starts physical modelling

3) Shows Empire building is possible
->Will influence the Romans

3

Alexandria?

One of many Alex moulded to his image
->most renamed later on

The one we care about is in Egypt
->was a "University town", there for learning
->many temples and schools to the muses
->"museum"
->supported by patronage (donations)
->freedom to study

4

Euclid, background and contributions?

From Alexandria (~4th BC - 3rd BC), lots of geometry.

THE FATHER OF MATH
-> gives the rigorous mathematical proof
->based on AXIOMS

Axioms: Statements that are true without proof
->self evident
->everyone understands and assumes true

Gave 5 Axioms:
->Straight line seg can join any 2 pts
->straight line can be extended infinitely
->straight line -> circle with length = radius
->right angle congruence
->parallel postulate

5

Archimedes, background and contributions?

From Syracuse, Italy (~3rd C), but likely in Alexandria
->used similar methods to Euclid

Master mathematician (geometry) also practical uses!
->developed mathematical devices (e.g. Arch. screw)
->to understand the natural world
->inventions wouldn't have been possible w/o math
->screw had specific angles
->mirrors to burn Roman ships
->might be involved in the space analog model?

POLYMATH ENGINEER, FATHER OF ENGINEERING
->very practical (creates Law of the Lever)
->"Fixed lever long enough, move the world"

ACTUAL DESIGN, NOT JUST ABSTRACT
->unlike Plato, Pyths, math isn't otherwordly perfect
->to be used to shape the world
->they would say it's impossible, math too good

BREAKS FROM ARISTOTLE, PLATO
->they thought knowledge for knowledge sake
->separated techne and episteme
->first unification of the practical & knowledge
->learn to make world better through abstract

Death:
->dies in the Roman siege of Alexandria
->legend a Praetorian stabbed him on the beach
->values abstract (circles) > practical (living)

Palimpsest:
->scroll that's been written over
->recently, was revealed the the original text in one was advanced math by Archimedes
->approaches limits

Eureka!
->King of Syracuse gold crown, is it real?
->links bathtub to density